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Beginning Programming All-In-One Desk Reference For Dummies

Beginning Programming All-In-One Desk Reference For Dummies

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by Wallace Wang

Content at a Glace

Book I: Getting Started
Getting Started Programming a Computer
Different Methods for Writing Programs
Types of Programming Languages
Programming Tools
Managing Large Projects with Software Engineering
Book II: Programming Basics
How Programs Work
Variables, Data Types, and Constants
Manipulating Data
Making Decisions by Branching
Repeating Commands by Looping
Breaking a Large Program into Subprograms
Breaking a Large Program into Objects
Reading and Saving Files
Documenting Your Program
Principles of User Interface Design
Book III: Data Structures
Structures and Arrays
Sets and Linked Lists
Collections and Dictionaries
Stacks, Queues, and Deques
Graphs and Trees
Book IV: Algorithms
Sorting Algorithms
Searching Algorithms
String Searching
Data Compression Algorithms
Encryption Algorithms
Book V: Web Programming
HyperText Markup Language
CSS
JavaScript
PHP
Ruby
Book VI: Programming Language Syntax
C and C++
Java and C#
Perl and Python
Pascal and Delphi
Visual Basic and REALbasic
Book VII: Applications
Database Management 
Bioinformatics
Computer Security
Artificial Intelligence
The Future of Computer Programming

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Book Details
 Price
 5.00 USD
 Pages
 723 p
 File Size
 13,317 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 978-0-470-10854-3
 Copyright   
 2008 by Wiley Publishing, Inc 

About the Author
I started off as a writer and wound up becoming a computer programmer.
Then I wound up circling around again to become a writer about computers.
I’ve spent most of my life writing about and programming a variety of
personal computers ranging from an ancient PC running MS-DOS 1.25 to
Windows XP PC to the latest Macintosh computer running Mac OS X Leopard.
My only preference for any computer is to use one that works.

I first learned about programming from my high school’s ancient teletype terminal
that connected to a mainframe computer through a 300 baud acoustic
modem that often disconnected me in the middle of my BASIC programming
sessions. At the time, I didn’t know much about programming. I just taught
myself BASIC from a book and illegally gained access to the teletype terminal
by using somebody else’s password. Later in the year, I actually signed up for
a computer class and finally gained legitimate access to the teletype terminal
to do everything I had been doing illegally long before.

The first time I wrote a BASIC program on my own, it was a game that simulated
flying a nuclear-armed bomber through a variety of anti-aircraft defenses
including surface-to-air missiles and jet fighters trying to shoot you down.
When this program worked for the first time, I felt like Dr. Frankenstein
watching his creation twitch and come to life. To this day, I still experience
that same feeling of exhilaration in creating something from an idea and turning
it into an actual working program. Only other programmers can understand
this strange sense of power and elation that comes from a working
program, and it’s this same sense of wonder and exploration that I hope
you’ll experience as you use this book to explore the world of programming
on your own computer.

I may be considered a computer veteran after all these years, but that doesn’t
mean that I can’t still experience that same feeling of satisfaction in typing
that final command and watching an entire program work exactly as I wanted.
Although I’ve written plenty of other books both on computers (Microsoft
Office 2007 For Dummies) and far away from computers altogether (Breaking
Into Acting For Dummies), I find that programming still fascinates me to this day.

As an author, I hope to help you discover your own path to learning programming,
and as a programmer, I hope to provide an overview of computer
programming in general. You may not become an expert programmer after
reading this book, but if you come away with a greater appreciation for programming,
then I’ll know I’ll have fulfilled my duty as both an author and programmer for this.

Introduction
If you enjoy using a computer, you may have even more fun learning
to control a computer by writing your own programs. To learn how to
program a computer, you need to understand three different subjects.
First, you have to understand that computer programming is nothing more
than problem solving. Before you even think about writing a program, you
need to know what problem you want your program to solve and how it will solve it.

Second, you need to learn the basic ideas behind computer programming in
general. Although programming a Windows computer is different from programming
a Macintosh or a super computer, the general principles are the
same. By learning what these common programming principles are and
why they exist, you can learn different ways to tell a computer what to do, step-by-step.

Finally, you also need to learn a specific programming language. A programming
language represents just one way to express your ideas in a language
that the computer can understand. By combining your knowledge of a programming
language with programming principles and the type of problem
you want the computer to solve, you can create your own computer
programs for fun or profit.

Who Should Buy This Book
If you have any interest in programming but don’t know where to start, this
book can give you a nudge in the right direction. You won’t learn how to
write programs in a specific programming language, but you’ll learn the
basics about computer programming so you’ll have no trouble learning
more on your own.

If you already know something about programming, this book can still help
you learn more by introducing you to the variety of programming languages
available and make it easy for you to learn different programming languages
quickly. The more you understand the advantages and disadvantages of
different programming languages, the better you’ll be able to choose the
language that’s best suited for a particular task.

Whether you’re a novice or an intermediate programmer, you’ll find this
book can work as a tutorial to teach you more and as a reference to help
refresh your memory on programming topics you may not normally use
everyday. This book won’t turn you into an expert overnight, but it will open
the doors to more information about programming than you might have ever
known even existed.

Table of Contents
Introduction..................................................................1
Who Should Buy This Book ............................................................................1
How This Book is Organized...........................................................................2
Book I: Getting Started
Book II: Programming Basics
Book III: Data Structures
Book IV: Algorithms
Book V: Web Programming
Book VI: Programming Language Syntax
Book VII: Applications 
How to Use This Book .....................................................................................3
Icons Used in This Book..................................................................................4
Getting Started .................................................................................................4
Book I: Getting Started
Chapter 1: Getting Started Programming a Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
How Computer Programming Works.............................................................7
Identifying the problem .........................................................................8
Defining the steps...................................................................................9
The History of Computer Programming......................................................10
Talking to a processor in machine language.....................................11
Using assembly language as a shortcut to machine language .......12
Hiding the details of a computer with a high-level language..........14
Combining the best of both worlds with the C programming
language .............................................................................................14
Pros and cons of programming languages ........................................15
Figuring Out Programming............................................................................17
Desire beats technical training every time .......................................17
Picking a computer and an operating system ..................................18
Writing programs with an editor ........................................................19
Converting source code with an assembler or compiler ................21
Translating source code with an interpreter....................................22
Combining a compiler with an interpreter to create p-code ..........23
Taking the time to understand ...........................................................23
Getting Started with Programming ..............................................................24
Starting with Windows.........................................................................24
Starting with Mac OS X ........................................................................25
Starting with Linux ...............................................................................25
Starting with Java .................................................................................26
Knowing Programming Versus Knowing Programming Language...........26
Chapter 2: Different Methods for Writing Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Spaghetti Programming without a Plan.......................................................31
Planning Ahead with Structured Programming..........................................32
The three parts of structured programming ....................................33
Top-down programming ......................................................................35
Making User Interfaces with Event-Driven Programming.........................38
Designing a user interface ...................................................................40
Writing event handlers ........................................................................42
Writing your program ..........................................................................43
Organizing a Program with Object-Oriented Programming......................43
Objects isolate data .............................................................................45
Objects simplify modifications...........................................................46
Designing Programs with Today’s Methodology........................................48
Chapter 3: Types of Programming Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Choosing Your First Language......................................................................50
C the BASIC choices .............................................................................50
Having second thoughts......................................................................50
Teaching Languages.......................................................................................52
Getting back to BASIC ..........................................................................52
Turtle graphics with Logo ...................................................................55
The philosophy of Pascal ....................................................................57
Other teaching languages....................................................................58
“Curly Bracket” Languages ...........................................................................63
The power of C .....................................................................................63
The efficiency of C................................................................................64
The portability of C ..............................................................................65
Adding object-oriented programming with C++ ...............................65
True portability with Java ...................................................................66
Safer programming with C#.................................................................66
Choosing a curly bracket language....................................................69
Artificial Intelligence Languages ..................................................................70
Scripting Languages.......................................................................................73
Automating a program.........................................................................75
Customizing a program........................................................................76
Transferring data among multiple programs....................................77
Creating separate applications...........................................................77
Database Programming Languages..............................................................78
The dBASE programming language....................................................78
Adding database access to traditional languages............................80
Customizing database programs........................................................80
Comparing Programming Languages...........................................................81
Chapter 4: Programming Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Choosing a Compiler .....................................................................................84
Defining your needs for a compiler....................................................84
Evaluating the technical features of a compiler ...............................86
Finding an Interpreter....................................................................................90
Operating system interpreters ...........................................................91
Web page interpreters .........................................................................91
Compiling to a Virtual Machine....................................................................93
Writing a Program with an Editor ................................................................94
Editors....................................................................................................94
Fixing a Program with a Debugger ...............................................................97
Stepping line by line.............................................................................97
Watching variables .............................................................................100
Saving Time with Third-Party Components..............................................102
Optimizing a Program with a Profiler ........................................................102
Creating a Help File ......................................................................................103
Installing a Program.....................................................................................104
Dissecting Programs with a Disassembler................................................105
Chapter 5: Managing Large Projects with
Software Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Software Engineering Methods...................................................................108
Designing a program with the waterfall model...............................108
Evolving a program with extreme programming............................112
Automating Software Engineering with CASE...........................................115
Modeling a large project....................................................................115
Generating code automatically.........................................................119
Formatting source code automatically............................................120
Tracking revisions in code ................................................................121
The Pros and Cons of Software Engineering.............................................122
Book II: Programming Basics .....................................125
Chapter 1: How Programs Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Using Keywords as Building Blocks...........................................................128
Organizing a Program ..................................................................................130
Dividing a Program into Subprograms ......................................................132
Dividing a Program into Objects ................................................................135
Creating a User Interface.............................................................................138
Chapter 2: Variables, Data Types, and Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Declaring Variables ......................................................................................142
Creating a variable .............................................................................142
Using Different Data Types .........................................................................148
Storing Data in a Variable............................................................................150
Retrieving Data from a Variable..................................................................151
Using Constant Values .................................................................................153
Defining the Scope of a Variable.................................................................154
Handling global variables with care.................................................154
Restricting scope to a module..........................................................156
Isolating variables in a subprogram.................................................157
Passing data among subprograms ...................................................158
Chapter 3: Manipulating Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
Storing Data with the Assignment Operator.............................................162
Using Math to Manipulate Numbers..........................................................162
Organizing equations with operator precedence...........................164
Using built-in math functions............................................................165
Manipulating Strings....................................................................................166
Finding Strings with Regular Expressions.................................................168
Pattern matching with the single character (.) wildcard ..............168
Pattern matching for specific characters........................................169
Pattern matching with the multiple character (*) and (+)
wildcards .........................................................................................169
Pattern matching with ranges...........................................................170
Using Comparison Operators.....................................................................172
Using Boolean Operators ............................................................................174
Using the Not operator ......................................................................175
Using the And operator .....................................................................175
Using the Or operator........................................................................176
Using the Xor operator ......................................................................177
Converting Data Types................................................................................178
Chapter 4: Making Decisions by Branching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
Picking One Choice with the IF-THEN Statement.....................................182
Picking Two Choices with the IF-THEN-ELSE Statement.........................184
Picking Three or More Choices with the IF-THEN-ELSEIF
Statement...................................................................................................185
Checking a condition for each set of commands ...........................186
Offering three or more choices ........................................................187
Playing with Multiple Boolean Operators.................................................189
Making Multiple Choices with the SELECT CASE statement ..................190
The switch statement in C (and similar languages).......................191
Matching multiple values in a SELECT CASE statement................193
Checking a range of values................................................................194
Comparing values...............................................................................195
Running at least one command with the ELSE statement.............195
Chapter 5: Repeating Commands by Looping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
Looping a Fixed Number of Times with the FOR-NEXT Loop.................200
Using a FOR-NEXT loop variable ......................................................201
Counting by a different range ...........................................................203
Counting by different increments ....................................................204
Counting backward ............................................................................205
Looping Zero or More Times with the WHILE Loop ................................206
Looping at Least Once with the DO Loop .................................................208
Playing with Nested Loops .........................................................................209
Prematurely Exiting from a Loop ...............................................................211
Checking Your Loops...................................................................................211
Chapter 6: Breaking a Large Program into Subprograms . . . . . . . . .213
Creating and Using Subprograms...............................................................214
Creating a subprogram ......................................................................216
“Calling” a subprogram......................................................................217
Passing Parameters......................................................................................219
Passing parameters by reference.....................................................222
Storing values in a subprogram name .............................................225
Repeating a Subprogram with Recursion..................................................227
Chapter 7: Breaking a Large Program into Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
How Object-Oriented Programming Works ..............................................232
Encapsulation Isolates Data and Subprograms........................................235
Shielding data inside an object.........................................................236
Grouping subprograms inside of an object.....................................237
Protecting code from other programmers......................................238
Sharing Code with Inheritance ...................................................................238
Polymorphism: Modifying Code without Changing Its Name.................242
Design Patterns ............................................................................................243
Object-Oriented Languages ........................................................................246
Hybrid languages................................................................................246
Pure languages....................................................................................247
Disadvantages of object-oriented programming............................248
Real-Life Programming Examples...............................................................249
Defining an object with a class .........................................................249
Creating an object from a class ........................................................251
Running subprograms stored in an object......................................252
Inheriting an object ............................................................................253
Using polymorphism to rewrite an inherited subprogram...........256
Chapter 8: Reading and Saving Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
Storing Data in Text Files ............................................................................259
Creating a text file ..............................................................................261
Reading a text file ...............................................................................263
Storing Fixed Size Data in Random-Access Files ......................................264
Writing data.........................................................................................266
Reading data .......................................................................................267
Storing Varying Size Data in Untyped Files...............................................268
Writing data.........................................................................................268
Reading data .......................................................................................269
Using Database Files ....................................................................................271
Structure of a database......................................................................272
Connecting to a database..................................................................273
Chapter 9: Documenting Your Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277
Adding Comments to Source Code ............................................................277
Line comments ...................................................................................279
Block comments .................................................................................279
Describing code and algorithms ......................................................282
Documentation ...................................................................................283
Debugging............................................................................................284
Writing Software Documentation ...............................................................285
Documentation types.........................................................................285
Documentation tools .........................................................................286
Help files ..............................................................................................287
Chapter 10: Principles of User Interface Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289
The Evolution of User Interfaces................................................................290
Command-line interface ....................................................................290
Menus...................................................................................................290
Graphical user interface ....................................................................292
Elements of a User Interface.......................................................................293
Displaying commands to a user interface.......................................293
Giving data to the user interface ......................................................296
Showing information back to the user.............................................300
Organizing a user interface ...............................................................301
Designing a User Interface ..........................................................................302
Know the user.....................................................................................303
Hide unusable options.......................................................................304
Tolerate mistakes ...............................................................................305
Be consistent ......................................................................................306
Focus on the task ...............................................................................306
Make navigation easy.........................................................................307
Book III: Data Structures ...........................................309
Chapter 1: Structures and Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
Using Structures...........................................................................................311
Storing data .........................................................................................312
Retrieving data....................................................................................313
Using an Array ..............................................................................................314
Defining the size .................................................................................314
Storing data .........................................................................................318
Retrieving data....................................................................................318
Working with Resizable Arrays...................................................................319
BASIC....................................................................................................319
C++........................................................................................................320
Working with Multi-Dimensional Arrays ...................................................321
Creating a multi-dimensional array..................................................322
Storing and retrieving data ...............................................................323
Using Structures with Arrays......................................................................323
Drawbacks of Arrays....................................................................................325
Sizing ....................................................................................................325
Data types............................................................................................326
Searching and sorting ........................................................................326
Adding and deleting ...........................................................................326
Chapter 2: Sets and Linked Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
Using Sets......................................................................................................329
Adding (and deleting) data in a set..................................................331
Checking for membership .................................................................332
Manipulating two sets........................................................................333
Using Linked Lists ........................................................................................337
Creating a linked list ..........................................................................338
Modifying a linked list........................................................................339
Creating a double linked list .............................................................340
Drawbacks of Sets and Linked Lists ..........................................................341
Problems with pointers .....................................................................342
Problems with accessing data ..........................................................342
Chapter 3: Collections and Dictionaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
Using a Collection ........................................................................................345
Adding data to a collection ...............................................................346
Deleting data from a collection.........................................................348
Identifying data with keys .................................................................349
Searching and retrieving data...........................................................350
Using Dictionaries ........................................................................................352
Adding data to a dictionary ..............................................................352
Searching and retrieving data from a dictionary ...........................353
Understanding Hash Tables........................................................................353
Converting keys with a hash function .............................................354
Hash function collisions ....................................................................356
Chapter 4: Stacks, Queues, and Deques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .361
Using a Stack.................................................................................................361
Adding data to a stack .......................................................................362
Removing data from a stack..............................................................363
Counting and searching a stack........................................................365
Using Queues................................................................................................365
Adding data to a queue......................................................................367
Removing data from a queue ............................................................368
Counting and searching a queue ......................................................368
Using Deques ................................................................................................370
Chapter 5: Graphs and Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375
Understanding Graphs ................................................................................376
Types of graphs ..................................................................................377
Uses for graphs...................................................................................378
Creating Trees...............................................................................................380
Ordered trees......................................................................................381
Binary trees.........................................................................................382
B-trees..................................................................................................383
Taking Action on Trees................................................................................384
Traversing a tree ................................................................................385
Adding new data.................................................................................386
Deleting data .......................................................................................386
Pruning and grafting sub-trees .........................................................387
Book IV: Algorithms ..................................................391
Chapter 1: Sorting Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393
Using Bubble Sort ........................................................................................394
Using Selection Sort.....................................................................................396
Using Insertion Sort .....................................................................................397
Using Shell Sort ............................................................................................398
Using Heap Sort............................................................................................400
Using Merge Sort ..........................................................................................403
Using Quick Sort...........................................................................................405
Comparing Sorting Algorithms...................................................................406
Chapter 2: Searching Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
Sequential Search.........................................................................................410
Backward or forward searching .......................................................411
Block searching ..................................................................................412
Binary searching.................................................................................413
Interpolation searching .....................................................................414
Using Indexes................................................................................................416
Creating an index................................................................................416
Clustered and unclustered indexes..................................................417
Problems with indexes ......................................................................418
Adversarial Search.......................................................................................418
Depth versus time ..............................................................................419
Alpha-beta pruning.............................................................................420
Looking up a library of good moves ................................................421
Chapter 3: String Searching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
Sequential Text Search ................................................................................424
The Boyer-Moore algorithm..............................................................425
The Rabin-Karp algorithm.................................................................426
The Shift Or algorithm .......................................................................427
The finite automaton string search algorithm................................428
Searching with Regular Expressions..........................................................429
Searching for single character patterns ..........................................430
Searching for multiple character patterns......................................430
Searching for alternate patterns.......................................................431
Searching Phonetically ................................................................................431
Chapter 4: Data Compression Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
Lossless Data Compression Algorithms....................................................436
Run-length encoding ..........................................................................436
The Burrows-Wheeler transform algorithm....................................436
Dictionary encoding...........................................................................439
Lossy Data Compression.............................................................................442
Chapter 5: Encryption Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445
The Basics of Encryption ............................................................................447
Stream ciphers....................................................................................449
Block ciphers ......................................................................................450
Symmetric/Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms......................................452
Cracking Encryption ....................................................................................455
Brute force attack...............................................................................456
Dictionary attacks ..............................................................................457
Plaintext and ciphertext attacks ......................................................458
Book V: Web Programming.........................................461
Chapter 1: HyperText Markup Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .463
The Structure of an HTML Document........................................................463
Creating a title.....................................................................................464
Creating the body text .......................................................................464
Aligning text ........................................................................................466
Emphasizing text ................................................................................467
Adding color........................................................................................467
Changing the font size .......................................................................468
Adding comments ..............................................................................469
Adding Graphics...........................................................................................469
Defining the Background.............................................................................469
Creating Hyperlinks .....................................................................................470
Defining an anchor point...................................................................470
Linking to an anchor point ................................................................471
Making Tables...............................................................................................471
Defining a table ...................................................................................471
Defining a table heading ....................................................................472
Creating table rows and data............................................................473
Displaying a table caption, header, and footer...............................474
Chapter 2: CSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477
The Structure of a Stylesheet .....................................................................477
Creating Style Classes..................................................................................479
Separating Styles in Files.............................................................................481
Cascading Stylesheets .................................................................................482
Chapter 3: JavaScript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .485
The Structure of a JavaScript Program .....................................................486
Creating Comments .....................................................................................487
Declaring Variables ......................................................................................487
Using Operators ...........................................................................................488
Increment and decrement operators...............................................489
Assignment operators .......................................................................490
Branching Statements .................................................................................490
Looping Statements .....................................................................................492
Creating Functions .......................................................................................493
Using Arrays .................................................................................................493
Designing User Interfaces ...........................................................................494
Creating dialog boxes ........................................................................494
Creating windows...............................................................................496
Chapter 4: PHP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497
The Structure of a PHP Program ................................................................497
Creating Comments .....................................................................................498
Declaring Variables ......................................................................................499
Using Operators ...........................................................................................500
Increment and decrement operators...............................................501
Assignment operators .......................................................................502
Branching Statements .................................................................................502
Looping Statements .....................................................................................504
Creating Functions .......................................................................................505
Using Arrays .................................................................................................506
Creating Objects...........................................................................................507
Chapter 5: Ruby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509
The Structure of a Ruby Program ..............................................................510
Creating Comments .....................................................................................510
Declaring Variables ......................................................................................511
Using Operators ...........................................................................................511
Branching Statements .................................................................................514
Looping Statements .....................................................................................515
Creating Functions .......................................................................................516
Using Data Structures..................................................................................517
Creating Objects...........................................................................................518
Book VI: Programming Language Syntax.....................521
Chapter 1: C and C++ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .523
The Structure of a C/C++ Program .............................................................524
Creating Comments .....................................................................................525
Declaring Variables .....................................................................................525
Declaring string data types ...............................................................526
Declaring integer data types .............................................................526
Declaring floating point data types..................................................527
Declaring Boolean values ..................................................................528
Using Operators ...........................................................................................528
Increment and decrement operators...............................................529
Assignment operators .......................................................................530
Branching Statements .................................................................................531
Looping Statements .....................................................................................533
Creating Functions .......................................................................................534
Data Structures.............................................................................................535
Creating a structure ...........................................................................536
Creating enumerated variables ........................................................536
Creating an array ................................................................................537
Using Objects................................................................................................537
Chapter 2: Java and C# . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .541
The Structure of a Java/C# Program..........................................................542
Creating Comments .....................................................................................542
Declaring Variables ......................................................................................543
Declaring string data types ...............................................................543
Declaring integer data types .............................................................544
Declaring floating point data types..................................................545
Declaring Boolean variables .............................................................545
Using Operators ...........................................................................................545
Increment and decrement operators...............................................546
Assignment operators .......................................................................547
Branching Statements .................................................................................548
Looping Statements .....................................................................................551
Creating Functions .......................................................................................552
Data Structures.............................................................................................553
Creating a C# structure......................................................................554
Creating an array ................................................................................554
Creating a Java linked list..................................................................555
Creating C## data structures ............................................................556
Using Objects................................................................................................556
Chapter 3: Perl and Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .559
The Structure of a Perl/Python Program ..................................................560
Creating Comments .....................................................................................561
Defining Variables ........................................................................................561
Using Operators ...........................................................................................561
Increment and decrement operators...............................................563
Assignment operators .......................................................................564
Branching Statements .................................................................................565
Looping Statements .....................................................................................566
Creating Functions .......................................................................................568
Perl Data Structures.....................................................................................569
Creating a Perl array ..........................................................................569
Creating a Perl hash array.................................................................570
Python Data Structures ...............................................................................570
Creating a Python tuple .....................................................................571
Creating a Python list.........................................................................571
Creating a Python dictionary............................................................572
Using Objects................................................................................................572
Chapter 4: Pascal and Delphi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .575
The Structure of a Pascal Program ............................................................576
Creating Comments .....................................................................................577
Declaring Variables ......................................................................................577
Declaring string data types ...............................................................577
Declaring integer data types .............................................................578
Declaring decimal data types ...........................................................579
Declaring Boolean values ..................................................................579
Declaring Constants.....................................................................................579
Using Operators ...........................................................................................580
Branching Statements .................................................................................581
Looping Statements .....................................................................................583
Creating Subprograms and Functions .......................................................584
Data Structures.............................................................................................585
Creating a record................................................................................585
Creating an array ................................................................................586
Creating a set ......................................................................................587
Creating Objects...........................................................................................587
Chapter 5: Visual Basic and REALbasic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .589
The Structure of a BASIC Program.............................................................590
Using windows files............................................................................590
Using module files ..............................................................................591
Using class files ..................................................................................591
Creating Comments .....................................................................................592
Declaring Variables ......................................................................................592
Declaring string data types ...............................................................592
Declaring integer data types .............................................................593
Declaring decimal data types ...........................................................594
Declaring Boolean values ..................................................................595
Declaring generic values ...................................................................595
Declaring Constants.....................................................................................595
Using Operators ...........................................................................................596
Branching Statements .................................................................................597
Looping Statements .....................................................................................600
Creating Subprograms and Functions .......................................................601
Data Structures.............................................................................................603
Creating a structure ...........................................................................603
Creating an array ................................................................................603
Creating a collection and a dictionary.............................................604
Creating Objects...........................................................................................605
Book VII: Applications...............................................607
Chapter 1: Database Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .609
The Basics of Databases..............................................................................609
Free-form databases...........................................................................610
Flat-file databases...............................................................................611
Relational databases..........................................................................613
Manipulating Data ........................................................................................617
Writing database commands ............................................................620
The SQL language...............................................................................620
Data integrity ......................................................................................621
Data mining .........................................................................................622
Database Programming ...............................................................................622
Chapter 2: Bioinformatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625
The Basics of Bioinformatics......................................................................625
Representing molecules ....................................................................626
Manipulating molecules in a computer ...........................................627
Searching Databases....................................................................................628
Bioinformatics Programming......................................................................630
Chapter 3: Computer Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633
Stopping Malware.........................................................................................634
Viruses .................................................................................................634
Worms..................................................................................................635
Trojan horses......................................................................................636
Spyware ...............................................................................................636
Stopping Hackers .........................................................................................637
Intrusion detection systems .............................................................637
Rootkit detectors................................................................................638
Forensics .............................................................................................639
Secure Computing........................................................................................639
Patching as an afterthought..............................................................640
Security in coding...............................................................................640
Security by design ..............................................................................641
Chapter 4: Artificial Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .643
Problem Solving ...........................................................................................644
Game-playing ......................................................................................645
Expert systems ...................................................................................646
Natural language processing.............................................................648
Speech recognition.............................................................................650
Image recognition...............................................................................651
Machine Learning.........................................................................................652
Bayesian probability ..........................................................................653
Neural networks .................................................................................653
Applications in Artificial Intelligence ........................................................656
Chapter 5: The Future of Computer Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .657
Picking a Programming Language..............................................................657
Picking an Operating System......................................................................658
Cross-Platform Programming .....................................................................660
The portability of C ............................................................................660
Cross-platform languages..................................................................661
Virtual machines.................................................................................662
Software as service ............................................................................663
Rich Internet applications (RIA).......................................................664
Robotics programming......................................................................665
The Programming Language of the Future ...............................................666
Low-level languages ...........................................................................666
The next generation: C++, Objective-C, C#, and Java ....................667
REALbasic and Visual Basic ..............................................................667
The scripting languages ....................................................................668
The best programming language......................................................668
Index........................................................................671

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How to Use This Book
     You can use this book as a tutorial or a reference. Although you can just flip
through this book to find the information you need, programming novices
should start with Book I before tackling any other books. After you understand
the basics of programming from Book I, then you can freely jump
around to read only the information that interests you.

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