Hardware Hacking. Syngress

Have Fun While Voiding Your Warranty

Joe Grand Author of Stealing the Network

Ryan Russell Author of Stealing the Network and Hack Proofing Your Network, Second Edition

And featuring Kevin D. Mitnick Technical Reviewer
Foreword by Andrew “bunnie” Huang
Lee Barken  Marcus  R. Brown  Job de Haas  Deborah  Kaplan
Bobby  Kinstle  Tom  Owad  Albert  Yarusso

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Book Details
 Price
 4.00 USD
 Pages
 577 p
 File Size
 15,316 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 1-932266-83-6
 Copyright   
 2004 by Syngress Publishing, Inc   

Technical Editor & Contributor
Joe Grand; Grand Idea Studio, Inc. Joe Grand is the President and CEO of Grand Idea
Studio, a product design and development firm that brings unique inventions to market
through intellectual property licensing. Many of his creations, including consumer electronics,
medical products, video games and toys, are sold worldwide.

A recognized name in computer security and electrical engineering, Joe’s pioneering
research on product design and analysis, mobile devices, and digital forensics is published in
various industry journals. He is a co-author of Hack Proofing Your Network, Second Edition
(Syngress Publishing, ISBN 1-928994-70-9) and Stealing The Network: How to Own the Box
(Syngress, ISBN 1-931836-87-6).

Joe has testified before the United States Senate Governmental Affairs Committee on the
state of government and homeland computer security, and is a former member of the legendary
hacker think-tank, L0pht Heavy Industries. He has presented his work at numerous
academic, industry, and private forums, including the United States Naval Post Graduate
School Center for INFOSEC Studies and Research, the United States Air Force Office of
Special Investigations, the USENIX Security Symposium, and the IBM Thomas J.Watson
Research Center. Joe holds a BSCE from Boston University.

Joe is the author of Chapter 1 “Tools of the Warranty Voiding Trade,” Chapter 2 “Electric
Engineering Basics,” Chapter 3 “Declawing Your CueCat,” and Chapter 13 “Upgrading Memory on
Palm Devices.”

Acknowledgments
We would like to acknowledge the following people for their kindness and support in making this book possible. To Jeff Moss and Ping Look of Black Hat for being great friends and supporters of Syngress.
A special thanks to Kevin Mitnick for sharing his invaluable expertise and knowledge, and to Darci Wood for her support of this book and the Syngress publishing program.
Syngress books are now distributed in the United States by O’Reilly & Associates, Inc.The enthusiasm and work ethic at ORA is incredible and we would like to thank everyone there for their time and effort in bringing Syngress books to market:Tim O’Reilly, Laura Baldwin, Mark Brokering, Mike Leonard, Donna Selenko, Bonnie Sheehan, Cindy Davis, Grant Kikkert, Opol Matsutaro, Lynn Schwartz, Steve Hazelwood, Mark Wilson, Rick Brown, Leslie Becker, Jill Lothrop,Tim Hinton, Kyle Hart, Sara Winge, C. J. Rayhill, Peter Pardo, Leslie Crandell, Valerie Dow, Regina Aggio, Pascal Honscher, Preston Paull, Susan Thompson, Bruce Stewart, Laura Schmier, Sue
Willing, and Mark Jacobsen. The incredibly hard working team at Elsevier Science, including Jonathan Bunkell, Duncan Enright, David Burton, Rosanna Ramacciotti, Robert Fairbrother, Miguel Sanchez, Klaus Beran, and Rosie Moss for making certain that our vision remains worldwide in scope.
David Buckland,Wendi Wong, Daniel Loh, Marie Chieng, Lucy Chong, Leslie Lim, Audrey Gan, and Joseph Chan of STP Distributors for the enthusiasm with which they receive our books. Kwon Sung June at Acorn Publishing for his support. Jackie Gross, Gayle Voycey, Alexia Penny, Anik Robitaille, Craig Siddall, Darlene Morrow, Iolanda Miller, Jane Mackay, and Marie Skelly at Jackie Gross & Associates for all their help and enthusiasm representing our product
in Canada. Lois Fraser, Connie McMenemy, Shannon Russell, and the rest of the great folks at Jaguar Book Group for their help with distribution of Syngress books in Canada.
David Scott,Tricia Wilden, Marilla Burgess,Annette Scott, Geoff Ebbs, Hedley Partis, Bec Lowe, and Mark Langley of Woodslane for distributing our books throughout Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Fiji Tonga, Solomon Islands, and the Cook Islands.
Winston Lim of Global Publishing for his help and support with distribution of Syngress books in the Philippines. To all the folks at Malloy who have made things easy for us and especially to Beth Drake and Joe Upton.

Technical Reviewer
Kevin D. Mitnick is a security consultant to corporations worldwide and a
cofounder of Defensive Thinking, a Las Vegas-based consulting firm (www.defensivethinking.com). He has testified before the Senate Committee on Governmental
Affairs on the need for legislation to ensure the security of the government’s information
systems. His articles have appeared in major new magazines and trade journals,
and he has appeared on Court TV, Good Morning America, 60 Minutes, CNN’s
Burden of Proof and Headline News, and has been a keynote speaker at numerous
industry events. He has also hosted a weekly radio show on KFI AM 640, Los
Angeles. Kevin is also author of the best-selling book, The Art of Deception:
Controlling the Human Element of Security.

Table of Contents
Foreword xxvii
Introduction xxxv
Part I Introduction to Hardware Hacking 1
Chapter 1 Tools of the Warranty Voiding Trade 3
Introduction 4
The Essential Tools 4
Taking it to the Next Level 6
Hardcore Hardware Hackers Only 8
Where to Obtain the Tools 10
Chapter 2 Electrical Engineering Basics 13
Introduction 14
Fundamentals 14
Bits, Bytes, and Nibbles 14
Reading Schematics 18
Voltage, Current, and Resistance 20
Direct Current and Alternating Current 21
Resistance 22
Ohm’s Law 22
Basic Device Theory 23
Resistors 23
Capacitors 25
Diodes 28
Transistors 30
Integrated Circuits 32
Soldering Techniques 34
Hands-On Example: Soldering a Resistor to a Circuit
Board 34
Desoldering Tips 36
Hands-On Example: SMD Removal Using ChipQuik 37
Common Engineering Mistakes 40
Web Links and Other Resources 41
General Electrical Engineering Books 41
Electrical Engineering Web Sites 42
Data Sheets and Component Information 43
Major Electronic Component and Parts Distributors 43
Obsolete and Hard-to-Find Component Distributors 43
Part II Hardware Hacks 45
Chapter 3 Declawing Your CueCat 47
Introduction 48
Model Variations 49
Opening the CueCat 51
Preparing for the Hack 51
Opening the Four-Screw PS/2 CueCat 51
Opening the Two-Screw PS/2 CueCat 54
Opening the USB CueCat 55
Removing the Unique Identifier 56
Preparing for the Hack 57
Removing the UID: Four-Screw PS/2CueCat 57
Removing the UID:Two-Screw PS/2CueCat 60
Removing the UID: USB CueCat 62
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 64
Removing the Proprietary Barcode Encoding 68
Preparing for the Hack 68
Removing the Encoding from the Four-Screw PS/2
CueCat 69
Removing the Encoding from the Two-Screw PS/2
CueCat 71
Removing the Encoding from the USB CueCat 73
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 74
Technical Information 76
The CueCat Encoding Scheme 76
More Physical Model Variations 78
More History of Political and Legal Issues 80
CueCat Litter Box:Web Links and Other Resources 82
Open-Source CueCat Software and Drivers 83
DigitalConvergence Patents for CueCat Technologies 83
Chapter 4 Case Modification: Building a Custom
Terabyte FireWire Hard Drive 83
Introduction 84
Case Mod Primer 84
Creating a 1.2TB FireWire RAID 85
Preparing for the Hack 85
Performing the Hack 86
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 92
Custom Case Modification for the FireWire RAID 94
Preparing for the Hack 94
Performing the Hack 95
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 105
Additional Resources 108
Case Modifications 109
Chapter 5 Macintosh 111
Compubrick SE 112
Preparing for the Hack 113
Performing the Hack 114
Taking Apart the Mac 114
Encasing the Speaker 120
Covering the Mouse and the Keyboard 121
Encasing the Disk Drive 123
Encasing the Hard Drive 125
Encasing the Motherboard 127
Encasing the CRT 129
How the Hack Works 131
Building a UFO Mouse 132
Preparing for the Hack 133
Performing the Hack 134
Opening the Mouse 134
Drilling the Hole 136
Soldering the LED 137
Reassembling the Mouse 138
How the Hack Works 140
Adding Colored Skins to the Power Macintosh G4 Cube 140
Preparing for the Hack 141
Performing the Hack 142
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 145
Other Hacks and Resources 145
Desktop Hacks 145
Laptop Hacks 146
Electrical and Optical Hacks 146
Case Mods 146
Software 147
Discussion 147
Chapter 6 Home Theater PCs 149
Introduction 150
Before You Begin: Research and Plan 151
How Much Could It Cost? 152
Did Someone Already Build It? 153
The Components of an HTPC Project 154
The Display 155
What Are Your Options for Higher-Quality
Video Display? 157
The Video Card 160
The Case 160
The Hard Drives 161
Speed Considerations 163
Sshhhh... Quiet Operations 164
Optical Drives 164
The CPU 165
The Sound Card 166
The Controller 167
The Software 167
Building a Windows HTPC 171
Preparing for the Hack 171
Performing the Hack: Software 175
Eazylook 177
Using the Launcher 178
Using Guide Plus+ 178
CDex 180
FairUse 180
Windows Summary 185
Building a Linux HTPC 185
Preparing for the Hack 185
Performing the Hack: Hardware 185
Performing the Hack: Software 192
Installing the Video Capture Drivers 192
Install MPlayer and CODECs 194
Installing MythTV 194
Linux Summary 197
Further Hacking and Advanced Topics 198
Chapter 7 Hack Your Atari 2600 and 7800 199
Introduction 200
The Atari 7800 ProSystem 201
Hacks in This Chapter 202
Atari 2600 Left-Handed Joystick Modification 202
Preparing for the Hack 203
Performing the Hack 204
Use an NES Control Pad with Your 2600 207
Preparing for the Hack 207
Performing the Hack 209
Atari 2600 Stereo Audio Output 214
Preparing for the Hack 216
Performing the Hack 216
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 223
Atari 7800 Blue LED Modification 223
Preparing for the Hack 223
Performing the Hack 224
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 227
Atari 7800 Game Compatibility Hack to Play Certain
2600 Games 228
Preparing for the Hack 229
Performing the Hack 230
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 232
Atari 7800 Voltage Regulator Replacement 232
Preparing for the Hack 233
Performing the Hack 233
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 236
Atari 7800 Power Supply Plug Retrofit 237
Preparing for the Hack 238
Performing the Hack 239
Other Hacks 242
2600 Composite/S-Video Modifications 242
Atari 7800 Composite and S-Video Output 243
Sega Genesis to Atari 7800 Controller Modification 243
NES Control Pad to Atari 7800 Controller Modification 243
Atari 7800 DevOS Modification and Cable Creation 243
Atari Resources on the Web 244
Chapter 8 Hack Your Atari 5200 and 8-Bit Computer 247
Introduction 248
The Atari 5200 SuperSystem 249
Hacks in This Chapter 250
Atari 5200 Blue LED Modification 250
Preparing for the Hack 251
Performing the Hack 251
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 256
Creating an Atari 5200 Paddle 256
Preparing for the Hack 257
Performing the Hack: Disassembling the Paddle
Controller 258
Performing the Hack: Building the 5200 Paddle
Controller 260
Performing the (Optional) Hack:Weighted Dial 266
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 267
Free Yourself from the 5200 Four-Port Switchbox 268
Preparing for the Hack 269
Performing the Hack 271
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 279
Build Atari 8-Bit S-Video and Composite Cables 280
Preparing for the Hack 281
Performing the Hack 282
Cable Hack Alternatives 288
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 289
Technical Information 289
Other Hacks 290
Atari 5200 Four-Port VCS Cartridge Adapter Fix 290
Atari 5200 Composite/S-Video Modification 290
Atari 8-Bit SIO2PC Cable 291
Atari Resources on the Web 291
Chapter 9 Hacking the PlayStation 2 293
Introduction 294
Commercial Hardware Hacking: Modchips 294
Getting Inside the PS2 296
Mainboard Revisions 296
Identifying Your Mainboard 297
Opening the PS2 298
Installing a Serial Port 302
Preparing for the Hack 303
Performing the Hack 304
Testing 309
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 310
Booting Code from the Memory Card 310
Preparing for the Hack 310
Performing the Hack: Preparing Title.DB 311
Choosing BOOT.ELF 313
Saving TITLE.DB to the Memory Card 314
Independence! 314
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 314
Other Hacks: Independent Hard Drives 316
PS2 System Overview 316
Understanding the Emotion Engine 317
The Serial I/O Port 318
The I/O Processor 321
The Sub-CPU Interface 321
Additional Web Resources 321
Chapter 10 Wireless 802.11 Hacks 323
Introduction 324
Wireless NIC/PCMCIA Card Modifications:
Adding an External Antenna Connector 325
Preparing for the Hack 326
Performing the Hack 327
Removing the Cover 327
Moving the Capacitor 329
Attaching the New Connector 331
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 332
OpenAP (Instant802): Reprogramming Your Access Point
with Linux 332
Preparing for the Hack 333
Performing the Hack 334
Installing the SRAM Card 335
Power Me Up, Scotty! 338
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 338
Having Fun with the Dell 1184 Access Point 338
Preparing for the Hack 339
Performing the Hack 340
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 345
Summary 345
Additional Resources and Other Hacks 345
User Groups 345
Research and Articles 346
Products and Tools 346
Chapter 11 Hacking the iPod 349
Introduction 350
Opening Your iPod 353
Preparing for the Hack 354
First Generation iPods 355
Second and Third-Generation iPods 356
Replacing the iPod Battery 359
Preparing for the Hack 360
Battery Replacement: First- and Second-Generation iPods 361
Battery Replacement:Third-Generation iPods 365
Upgrading a 5GB iPod’s Hard Drive 371
Preparing for the Hack 372
Performing the Hack 372
From Mac to Windows and Back Again 381
Preparing for the Hack 381
Going from Windows to Macintosh 381
Going from Macintosh to Windows 383
iPod Diagnostic Mode 384
The Diagnostic Menu 384
Disk Check 387
Additional iPod Hacks 388
Installing Linux on an iPod 388
Repairing the FireWire Port 388
Scroll Wheel Fix 389
iPod Resources on the Web 390
Chapter 12 Can You Hear Me Now? Nokia 6210
Mobile Phone Modifications 391
Introduction 392
Nokia 6210 LED Modification 393
Preparing for the Hack 393
Performing the Hack 395
Opening the Nokia 6210 395
Removing the Old LEDs 400
Inserting the New LEDs 401
Increasing the LED Power 402
Putting the Phone Back Together 403
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 404
Data Cabling Hacks 406
Data Cables 407
Flashing Cables 410
Net Monitor 411
Other Hacks and Resources 415
Chapter 13 Upgrading Memory on Palm Devices 417
Introduction 418
Model Variations 419
Hacking the Pilot 1000 and Pilot 5000 420
Preparing for the Hack 420
Removing the Memory Card 422
Adding New Memory 423
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 427
Hacking the PalmPilot Professional and PalmPilot Personal 429
Preparing for the Hack 429
Removing the Memory Card 429
Adding New Memory 430
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 433
Hacking the Palm m505 436
Preparing for the Hack 436
Opening the Palm 437
Removing the Main Circuit Board 439
Removing the Memory 441
Adding New Memory 442
Under the Hood: How the Hack Works 445
Technical Information 447
Hardware 447
File System 448
Memory Map 448
Database Structure 449
Palm Links on the Web 450
Technical Information 450
Palm Hacks 450
More Memory Upgrades 450
Part III Hardware Hacking Technical Reference 451
Chapter 14 Operating Systems Overview 453
Introduction 454
OS Basics 454
Memory 455
Physical Memory 455
Virtual Memory 457
File Systems 458
Cache 459
Input/Output 460
Processes 460
System Calls 461
Shells, User Interfaces, and GUIs 461
Device Drivers 462
Block and Character Devices 464
Properties of Embedded Operating Systems 466
Linux 467
Open Source 467
History 468
Embedded Linux (uCLinux) 469
Product Examples: Linux on Embedded Systems 470
VxWorks 470
Product Examples:VxWorks on Embedded Systems 470
Windows CE 471
Concepts 471
Product Examples:Windows CE on Embedded
Systems 472
Summary 473
Additional References and Further Reading 473
Chapter 15 Coding 101 475
Introduction 476
Programming Concepts 476
Assignment 477
Control Structures 478
Looping 479
Conditional Branching 480
Unconditional Branching 481
Storage Structures 482
Structures 483
Arrays 484
Hash Tables 485
Linked Lists 486
Readability 488
Comments 488
Function and Variable Names 488
Code Readability: Pretty Printing 489
Introduction to C 490
History and Basics of C 490
Printing to the Screen 490
Data Types in C 493
Mathematical Functions 493
Control Structures 496
ForLoops 496
WhileLoops 496
If/Else 498
Switch 500
Storage Structures 501
Arrays, Pointers, and Character Strings 501
Structures 506
Function Calls and Variable Passing 507
System Calls and Hardware Access 508
Summary 509
Debugging 509
Debugging Tools 509
The printfMethod 510
Introduction to Assembly Language 512
Components of an Assembly Language Statement 513
Labels 513
Operations 515
Operands 515
Sample Program 516
Summary 518
Additional Reading 518
Index 519


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Introduction
.Hardware hacking. Mods.Tweaks.Though the terminology is new, the
concepts are not: A gearhead in the 1950s adding a custom paint job
and turbo-charged engine to his Chevy Fleetline, a ’70s teen converting
his ordinary bedroom into a “disco palace of love,” complete
with strobe lights and a high-fidelity eight-track system, or a technogeek
today customizing his computer case to add fluorescent lighting
and slick artwork.Taking an ordinary piece of equipment and turning
it into a personal work of art. Building on an existing idea to create
something better.These types of self-expression can be found
throughout recorded history.

When Syngress approached me to write this book, I knew they
had hit the nail on the head.Where else could a geek like me become
an artistic genius? Combining technology with creativity and a little
bit of skill opened up the doors to a whole new world: hardware hacking.

But why do we do it? The reasons might be different for all of us,
but the end result is usually the same.We end up with a unique thing
that we can call our own—imagined in our minds and crafted through
hours, days, or years of effort. And doing it on our own terms.
Hardware hacking today has hit the mainstream market like never
before. Computer stores sell accessories to customize your desktop PC.
Web sites are popping up like unemployed stock brokers to show off
the latest hacks. Just about any piece of hardware can serve as a candidate
to be hacked. Creativity and determination can get you much farther
than most product developers could ever imagine. Hardware
hacking is usually an individual effort, like creating a piece of art.

However, just like artists, hackers sometimes collaborate and form communities
of folks working toward a similar goal.
The use of the term hacker is a double-edged sword and often carries a
mythical feel. Contrary to the way major media outlets enjoy using the word
to describe criminals breaking into computer systems, a hacker can simply be
defined as somebody involved in the exploration of technology. And a hack in
the technology world usually defines a new and novel creation or method of
solving a problem, typically in an unorthodox fashion.
The philosophy of most hardware hackers is straightforward:
 Do something with a piece of hardware that has never been done before.
 Create something extraordinary.
 Harm nobody in the process.
Hardware hacking arguably dates back almost 200 years. Charles Babbage
created his difference engine in the early 1800s—a mechanical form of hardware
hacking.William Crookes discovered the electron in the mid-1800s—
possibly the first form of electronics-related hardware hacking.Throughout the
development of wireless telegraphy, vacuum tubes, radio, television, and transistors,
there have been hardware hackers—Benjamin Franklin,Thomas Edison,
and Alexander Graham Bell, to name a few. As the newest computers of the
mid-20th century were developed, the ENIAC, UNIVAC, and IBM mainframes,
people from those academic institutions fortunate enough to have the
hardware came out in droves to experiment.With the development and
release of the first microprocessor (Intel 4004) in November 1971, the general
public finally got a taste of computing.The potential for hardware hacking has
grown tremendously in the past decade as computers and technology have
become more intertwined with the mainstream and everyday living.
Hardware hacks can be classified into four different categories, though
sometimes a hack falls into more than one:
1. Personalization and customization Think “hot rodding for
geeks,” the most prevalent of hardware hacking.This includes things
such as case modifications, custom skins and ring tones, and art projects
like creating an aquarium out of a vintage computer.
2. Adding functionality Making the system or product do something
it wasn’t intended to do.This includes things such as converting the
iPod to run Linux, turning a stock iOpener into a full-fledged PC, or
modifying the Atari 2600 to support stereo sound and composite video output.
3. Capacity or performance increase Enhancing or otherwise
upgrading a product.This includes things such as adding memory to
your favorite personal digital assistant (PDA), modifying your wireless
network card to support an external antenna, or overclocking your PC’s motherboard.
4. Defeating protection and security mechanisms This includes
things such as removing the unique identifier from CueCat barcode
scanners, finding Easter eggs and hidden menus in a TiVo or DVD
player, or creating a custom cable to unlock the secrets of your cell
phone.Theft-of-service hacks fall into this category, but this book
doesn’t cover them.
Creating your own hardware hacks and product modifications requires at
least a basic knowledge of hacking techniques, reverse-engineering skills, and a
background in electronics and coding. All the information you’ll need is in the
pages of this book. And if a topic isn’t covered in intimate detail, we include
references to materials that do. If you just want to do the hack without worrying
about the underlying theory behind it, you can do that, too.The stepby-
step sections throughout each chapter include pictures and “how to”
instructions.The details are in separate sections that you can skip right over
and get to the fun part—voiding your warranty!
This book has something for everyone from the beginner hobbyist with
little to no electronics or coding experience to the self-proclaimed “gadget
geek” and advanced technologist. It is one of the first books to bring hardware
hacking to the mainstream. It is meant to be fun and will demystify many of
the hacks you have seen and heard about.We, all the contributors to this project,
hope you enjoy reading this book and that you find the hacks as exciting
and satisfying as we have.
If your friends say “Damn, now that’s cool,” then you know you’ve done it right.
—Joe Grand, the hardware hacker formerly known as Kingpin
January 2004
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