Combatting Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism. Springer

Challenges, Trends and Priorities

Babak Akhgar • Ben Brewster Editors

'Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications'


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Book Details
 Price
 2.00 USD
 Pages
 321 p
 File Size
 11,020 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 978-3-319-38929-5
 978-3-319-38930-1 (eBook) 
 Copyright   
 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
 2016   

Preface
It is with great privilege that we welcome you to the volume Combatting
Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism: Challenges, Trends and Priorities. In this collection
we provide an authoritative and accessible guide highlighting a broad range
of challenges and complexities faced by modern society in relation to cybercrime
and cyberterrorism.
At this point, we would like to take the opportunity to recognize the work of the
contributors for allowing us to draw upon their expertise in order to shape the
content of this book, a process that has enabled us to highlight many of the pressing
cyber-related needs and requirements of society within its chapters. This interdisciplinary
approach has helped us to bring together a wide range of organizations
from large and small-to-medium enterprise, law enforcement and academia to
present the reader with an analysis of current and relevant issues pertinent to
cybercrime and cyberterrorism.

The growth in significance of cyberspace across society has opened up vectors
for, and extended the scope of, many existing forms of criminality. As well as
acting as an enabler for the globalization of business, cyberspace has created a truly
global landscape for crime as individuals from across the globe are now able to
utilize this environment to attack critical national infrastructure, governments and
private business by stealing, compromising the integrity of, and destroying data. It
has created new market places for the sale and exchange of illegal weapons and
drugs, other illicit materials and even the trafficking and exploitation of human
beings and provides a platform for the creation and exchange of materials associated
with the solicitation and sexual exploitation of children.

However, cyberspace is not only a tool for business and criminal enterprise;
citizens increasingly depend on it as a social mechanism, publicly exposing large
amounts of information about themselves and those they interact with. For these
reasons, it has become vitally important that we address and overcome these new
challenges as a society, restoring the confidence we have in the networks and
infrastructure that form the backbone of not just European, but global society.
Ensuring the future of our economic welfare, privacy and collective security is a
primary concern not limited to the idea of cybercrime. These threats extend beyond
extending the reach and scope of traditional criminal motivations through to the
emerging threats of cyberterrorism and cyberwarfare. In this context, the very
nature of terrorism is evolving because of cyberspace, providing a mechanism for
the propagation of ideology and extremist rhetoric, the recruitment, coercion and
training of individuals, and a platform to plan and execute attacks against governments,
business and critical infrastructure. It is particularly attractive to criminals
and terrorists alike due to the potential for anonymity, making the job of investigators
and prosecutors to prevent and respond to these activities increasingly difficult.

In response to the growing role cyberspace has across society, both in its ability
facilitate new opportunities as well as opening up new threats, this volume covers a
wide spectrum of challenges, from analyzing the legal and ethical issues associated
with conducting research, to details regarding specific challenge areas such as
public/private cooperation, attack attribution and standardization. These subject
areas are enriched with contextual information and findings from the research
projects contributing to it, providing the theoretical and practical frame for future
research, practice and policy aimed at enhancing societal resilience to cyber-threats
and contributing towards the overriding objective of supporting initiatives at both
national and EU levels. Authored and edited by a multi-disciplinary team of
practitioners, researchers and experts from academia, law enforcement and private
industry, this new volume provides a welcome introduction to contemporary
challenges we face in respect of cybercrime and cyberterrorism, providing a welcome
point of reference to aid researchers, practitioners and policy makers in the
development of their respective cyber security strategies.
Babak Akhgar
Ben Brewster

Acknowledgments
The editors would like to take this opportunity to thank the multidisciplinary team
of contributors who dedicated their time, knowledge and experiences in preparing
the chapters contained in this edited volume. In particular, we would like to
recognise the dedication of Dr. Raluca-Elena Lefticaru, Constantinos Orphanides,
Alison Lyle and the wider team at CENTRIC (Centre of Excellence in Terrorism,
Resilience, Intelligence and Organised Crime Research, Sheffield Hallam
University) without whom this edited volume would not have been possible.
We also extend our thanks to the consortium partners of the COURAGE (cybercrime
and Terrorism European Research Agenda), CAMINO (Comprehensive
Approach to Cyber Roadmap Coordination and Development) and CyberROAD
(Development of the Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism Research Roadmap) FP7
Projects for their support of this book:
COURAGE
• Engineering ingegneria informatica
• CENTRIC (Centre of Excellence in Terrorism, Resilience, Intelligence and
Organised Crime Research), Sheffield Hallam University
• European Organisation for Security
• UNICRI (United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute)
• Cybercrime Research Institute
• TNO, Netherlands Organisation for applied Scientific Research
• FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency
• Office of the Police and Crime Commissioner for West Yorkshire
• Aconite Internet Solutions
• EstEnter Polska
• Conceptivity SARL
• Institut Jožef Stefan
• Selex Sistemi Integrati
• Tilburg University
• fraunhofer Gesellschaft
• International Cyber Investigation Training Academy
CAMINO
• ITTI Sp. Z. o. o.
• CBRNE Ltd
• Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
• DFRC AG
• Epsion Ltd
• Everis Aeroespacial y Defensa S.L.
• Universite Montpellier I
• Wyższa Szkoła Policji w Szczytnie
• S21sec Information Security Labs S.L.
• Sec-Control Finland Ltd 
CyberROAD
• University of Cagliari, PRA Lab
• Technical University of Darmstadt
• INDRA
• Poste Italiane
• SecurityMatters
• Vitrociset
• FORTH, Foundation for Research and Technology
• INOV – Insec Inovação
• Demokritos National Center for Scientific Research
• SBA Research Austria
• Proprs Ltd.
• NASK, Research and Academic Computer Network
• Polícia Judiciária Portugal
• CEFRIEL Center of Excellence for Research, 
Innovation, Education and industrial Labs Partnerships
• SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Arts
• CyberDefcon
• Royal Holloway, University of London
• Greek Ministry of National Defence
• McAfee UK
• MELANI, Reporting and Analysis Unit for Information Assurance
These projects received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework
Programme for research, technological development and demonstration (FP7-
SEC-2013) under grant agreement no’s 607406 (CAMINO), 607642
(CyberROAD) and 607949 (COURAGE).

Table of Contents
Part I: Approaching Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism Research
Megatrends and Grand Challenges of Cybercrime
and Cyberterrorism Policy and Research . 3
Bert-Jaap Koops
Towards a Systematic View on Cybersecurity Ecology . . 17
Wojciech Mazurczyk, Szymon Drobniak and Sean Moore
Challenges Priorities and Policies: Mapping the Research
Requirements of Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism Stakeholders . . 39
Douglas Wells, Ben Brewster and Babak Akhgar
A (Cyber)ROAD to the Future: A Methodology for Building
Cybersecurity Research Roadmaps . . . 53
Davide Ariu, Luca Didaci, Giorgio Fumera, Giorgio Giacinto, Fabio Roli,
Enrico Frumento and Federica Freschi
Part II: Legal, Ethical and Privacy Considerations
Data Protection Law Compliance for Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism
Research  . . 81
Arnold Roosendaal, Mari Kert, Alison Lyle and Ulrich Gasper
Non-discrimination and Protection of Fundamental Rights
in Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism Research . . 97
Francesca Bosco, Elise Vermeersch, Vittoria Luda, Giuseppe Vaciago,
Ulrich Gasper and Alison Lyle
Risks Related to Illegal Content in Cybercrime
and Cyberterrorism Research  . . 117
Alison Lyle, Benn Kemp, Albena Spasova and Ulrich Gasper
Part III: Technologies, Scenarios and Best Practices
Cybercrime Economic Costs: No Measure No Solution .  . 135
Jart Armin, Bryn Thompson and Piotr Kijewski
Towards the Development of a Research Agenda for Cybercrime
and Cyberterrorism – Identifying the Technical Challenges
and Missing Solutions . . 157
Borka Jerman-Blažič and Tomaž Klobučar
The Never-Ending Game of Cyberattack Attribution: Exploring
the Threats, Defenses and Research Gaps . . 175
Piotr Kijewski, Przemyslaw Jaroszewski, Janusz A. Urbanowicz
and Jart Armin
Emerging Cyber Security: Bio-inspired Techniques and MITM
Detection in IoT . . 193
Michał Choraś, Rafał Kozik and Iwona Maciejewska
Cyber Situational Awareness Testing. . 209
Joel Brynielsson, Ulrik Franke and Stefan Varga
Part IV: Policy Development and Roadmaps for Cybercrime
and Cyberterrorism Research
How the Evolution of Workforces Influences Cybercrime Strategies:
The Example of Healthcare . . 237
Enrico Frumento and Federica Freschi
European Public-Private Partnerships on Cybersecurity -
An Instrument to Support the Fight Against Cybercrime
and Cyberterrorism . 259
Nina Olesen
Are We Doing All the Right Things to Counter Cybercrime?. . 279
Michal Choraś, Rafal Kozik, Andrew Churchill and Artsiom Yautsiukhin
Consolidated Taxonomy and Research Roadmap for Cybercrime
and Cyberterrorism. . 295
Babak Akhgar, Michał Choraś, Ben Brewster, Francesca Bosco,
Elise Vermeersch, Vittoria Luda, Damian Puchalski and Douglas Wells
Author Index. . . . . 323

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Editors
Ben Brewster
CENTRIC (Centre of Excellence in
Terrorism, Resilience, Intelligence
and Organised Crime Research)
Sheffield Hallam University
Sheffield
UK

Babak Akhgar
CENTRIC (Centre of Excellence in
Terrorism, Resilience, Intelligence
and Organised Crime Research)
Sheffield Hallam University
Sheffield
UK
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