Blockchain: A Practical Guide to Developing Business, Law, and Technology Solutions

Joseph J. Bambara , Paul R. Allen

Contents at a Glance

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Blockchain 
CHAPTER 2 Business Use Cases
CHAPTER 3 Technology Use Cases
CHAPTER 4 Legal and Governance Use Cases
CHAPTER 5 Technology on Ethereum
CHAPTER 6 Fast-Track Application Tutorial
CHAPTER 7 Ethereum Application Best Practices
CHAPTER 8 Private Blockchain Platforms and Use Cases
CHAPTER 9 Challenges 
CHAPTER 10 Sample Application: Blockchain and Betting 
CHAPTER 11 Deploying the Sample Application: Blockchain and Betting
Index


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Book Details
 Price
 3.00 USD
 Pages
 321 p
 File Size
 16,242 KB
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 978-1-26-011586-4
 Copyright   
 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education 

About the Author
Joseph J. Bambara, CIPP/US, is an attorney/technologist. As an attorney with a private practice, he has counseled affiliate marketing, media, and technology firms in software and data licensing agreements, intellectual property, privacy, data security, and cybersecurity as well as analyzing the legal implications of new technologies like blockchain and smart contracts. As technologist/founder of UCNY, Inc., his experience includes 30 years of implementing computing and communications architecture for Wall Street, media and law enforcement including mobile, enterprise, database, cybersecurity, and most recently IoT and blockchain. He has taught courses in computing at CCNY School of Engineering in New York. He is the author of more than 10 internationally published books on software development covering Java, SQL, and related technologies for McGraw-Hill. As lecturer and co-chairman of the New York County Lawyers Association Law and Technology Group, he presents frequently on law and technology. He has a juris doctorate in law and a master’s degree in computer science.

Paul R. Allen is a director and product owner at Enterprise Engineering, Inc. Paul has been advising on, architecting, and developing applications systems for over 25 years. During this time, he has performed many strategic assessments of IT organizations, infrastructures, software development processes, and application architectures and helped companies and teams evaluate alternative technologies and products. He has developed systems for the financial, brokerage, pharmaceutical, and manufacturing industries, specializing in web-based, object-oriented technology and is now doing the same in the exciting world of blockchain, IoT, and smart contracts. He has taught numerous courses in computing at Columbia University in New York. He has authored more than a dozen books, including OCM Java EE 6 Enterprise Architect Exam Guide (Oracle Press, 2014), Sun Certified Enterprise Architect for J2EE Study Guide (McGraw-Hill, 2007), J2EE Unleashed (SAMS, 2001), SQL Server Developer’s Guide (IDG, 2000), Informix: Universal Data Option (McGraw-Hill, 1998), and PowerBuilder: A Guide to Developing Client/Server Applications (McGraw-Hill, 1995). Paul has also given presentations on computing topics in cities around the globe, including London, Paris, Tokyo, Los Angeles, Vienna, Berlin, New York, Washington, D.C., Copenhagen, Oslo, and Stockholm.

About the Contributors
Kedar Iyer is a software engineer who has worked with satellite systems, autonomous robotics, and blockchain technologies. He was the co-founder of LetsChai, an India-based dating site. His most recent focus has been on blockchain technologies. He is the creator of PeerBet, a peer-to-peer sports betting platform on the Ethereum blockchain. He has a degree in mechanical engineering from UCLA and currently lives in Brooklyn, New York.

Solomon Lederer, PhD, is a founder of blockmatics.tech, a blockchain training and consulting firm, and the founder of Coinspace, a blockchain-focused co-working space. He is also partner and head of technology at Iterative Instinct, a private investment fund focused on crypto-assets. He has a doctorate in distributed and ad hoc sensor networks, where he developed novel ways for networks to self-organize. Before blockchain, he worked as a software engineer in the defense and finance industries. He has been working with/teaching blockchain technology and Ethereum since 2014.

René Madsen is an enterprise solution architect at Progressive A/S, specializing in blockchain development and big data for many enterprise organizations across western Europe. He is also an adjunct lecturer at Copenhagen Business School in Denmark. He has a master’s degree in computer science from Copenhagen University and an MBA from Edinburgh Business School, Heriot-Watt University.

Michael Wuehler is a founder of Ethereum and INFURA. He is a blockchain evangelist at ConsenSys, a leading blockchain venture production studio. He leads a global team in building an ecosystem of consumer-centric products and enterprise solutions using blockchain technologies, primarily Ethereum. He is a business and information systems leader with 25 years of experience and a broad-based background that spans technical and business infrastructure, transformation, and operations. He attended the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. He lives in New York City.

About the Technical Editor
Sean T. McKeough is the co-founder of Blockmatics, a leader in the blockchain education space. He regularly meets with leaders from a variety of industries to help them understand this transformative technology and how they might apply it to their business or passion. Sean is a community organizer at heart and is a regular in the New York and Colorado blockchain event scene. You can get in touch with Sean at 21.co/mckeough.

Table of Contents
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  xv
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Blockchain . 1
Blockchain: An Information Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
A Distributed Trusted Information Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Implementation Trends. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Trust: The Byzantine Generals Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
The Byzantine Generals Problem Explained: Why Trust Is So Important. . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Byzantine Fault Tolerance in Use Today: Why Airplanes Are Safe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Satoshi Nakamoto’s Blockchain Breakthrough. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Satoshi Nakamoto: The Man, the Myth, the Mystery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Satoshi Nakamoto: Timing Is Everything . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Blockchain: Underpinning of Cryptocurrency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Types of Blockchain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Public Blockchains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . 13
Consortium Blockchains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Private Blockchains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
Comparing Blockchains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Blockchain Implementations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Bitcoin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Namecoin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Ripple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Ethereum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Blockchain Collaborative Implementations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Hyperledger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . 24
Corda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . 25
Blockchain in Practical Use Today. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Blockchain in the Financial Technology Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Blockchain in the Sharing Economy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Blockchain and Real Estate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Blockchain and Identity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Blockchain and the Practice of Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Blockchain Decentralized File Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Blockchain and Cloud Computing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Blockchain Gambling and Betting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
CHAPTER 2 Business Use Cases 33
Currency and Tokens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Cryptocurrency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Digital Tokens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Financial Services Use Cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Know Your Customer (KYC) Use Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Asset Management Settlement Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Insurance Claims Processing Use Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Trade Finance (Supply Chain) Use Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Global Payments Use Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Smart Property. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Transferring Ownership of Smart Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Using Smart Property as Collateral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Smart Contracts on the Blockchain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
The Trust Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Blockchain Details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Blockchain IoT Protocol Projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
CHAPTER 3 Technology Use Cases 55
Web Versions 1 and 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Web 3.0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Distributed Storage Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
InterPlanetary File System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Swarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Storj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Distributed Computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Golem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Zennet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Decentralized Communications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Existing Decentralized Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Whisper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . 70
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
CHAPTER 4 Legal and Governance Use Cases 75
Blockchain Changes the Legal Landscape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Cryptocurrencies as Legal Tender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Blockchain and Privacy Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Legal Ramifications of Blockchain Records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
The Beginning of Autonomous Law: Smart Contract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Smart Contract Evolution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Smart Contract Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Smart Contract Benefits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Smart Contract Challenges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Smart Contract Risks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Smart Contract Legal Challenges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Blockchain as Evidence and Digital Signature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Smart Contract Design Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Is an Advertising Payment Application a Blockchain Fit?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Defining Contract Data Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Smart Contract Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Smart Contract Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Smart Contracts in Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
DAO and Jurisdiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
DAO Service-Level Liability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
DAO Liability for Contract Breach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
DAO and Intellectual Property. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
DAO and Who or What Is Responsible. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
DAO Compliance with Financial Services Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
The DAO and Exiting a Contract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
DAO Data as Property. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
DAO and Due Diligence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
CHAPTER 5 Technology on Ethereum 103
Ethereum Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Ether the Cryptocurrency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Obtaining Ether. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Mining in Ethereum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Ethereum Work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Transactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Network Fuel (Gas). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
The Ethereum Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
State Transition Function (STF). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Code Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Turing Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Scalability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . 119
Infrastructure: Storage and Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Decentralized Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Profile of a Dapp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
CHAPTER 6 Fast-Track Application Tutorial 125
Introducing Solidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Solidity Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Solidity Functions and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Layout of Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Run Ethereum Dapps in Your Browser. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Installing MetaMask. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Developing a Contract Using MetaMask. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Remix/Browser Solidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Develop a Simple Smart Contract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Deploy the Smart Contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Validate the Smart Contract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Next Step: Try Truffle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
CHAPTER 7 Ethereum Application Best Practices . 145
Ethereum Blockchain Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Setting Up the Development Environment for Truffle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Set Up a Truffle Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Truffle Directory Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Ethereum Blockchain Development: Best Practices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Blockchain Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Solidity Basics Continued. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Calling Contracts from Contracts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Handling Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Smart Contract Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Modules and Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Security and Roles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Single Contract Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Linked Contracts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  156
User-Specific Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Handling Persistent Contract Addresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Halting a Contract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Smart Contract Life Cycle: Migration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Smart Contract Interaction with Users and Enterprise Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Debugging Your Smart Contract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Debugging Using Remix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Debugging Using Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Smart Contract Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Types of Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . 165
Dry Run Using Private Nets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Autopsy of a Wallet Bug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
The Future. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
CHAPTER 8 Private Blockchain Platforms and Use Cases . 173
Categories of Blockchain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Private Blockchain Use Cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Private Blockchain Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
AlphaPoint Distributed Ledger Platform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Chain Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Corda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . 177
Domus Tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . 177
The Elements Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
HydraChain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Hyperledger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . 179
Interbit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Monax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
MultiChain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Openchain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . 214
Quorum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Stellar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . 215
Symbiont Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
CHAPTER 9 Challenges . 217
Blockchain Governance Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Bitcoin Blocksize Debate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
The Ethereum DAO Fork. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Ethereum’s Move to PoS and Scaling Challenges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Blockchain Technical Challenges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Bugs in the Core Code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Denial-of-Service Attacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Security in Smart Contracts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Sharding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
CHAPTER 10 Sample Application: Blockchain and Betting 233
What Is a Dapp? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Introduction to Lotteries, Betting, and Gambling on the Blockchain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Setting Up a Development Environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Syncing an Ethereum Node. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Creating and Configuring a Private Development Chain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Creating a Killable Contract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Compiling the Contract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Deploying a Contract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Contract Debugging and Interaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Defining Data Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Enumerables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Storage Variables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . 247
Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Creating a Game. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Bidding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . 250
Scoring Games and Payouts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Withdrawing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 260
Reading Games. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  261
Reading Bids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
CHAPTER 11 Deploying the Sample Application: Blockchain and Betting 265
Deploying Full Contract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Deploying to the Mainnet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Seeding Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Front-End User Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Pages in the User Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Displaying Games. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Bet Page Markup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Displaying Game Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Displaying Open Bids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Displaying Bets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Placing Bids/Bets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Scoring Games. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  287
Withdrawing Money. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Deploying to AWS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Index 291


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Introduction
Blockchain technology is robust like the Internet, but unlike the web2 Internet of today, it stores
identical blocks of information across its network. For this reason, a blockchain cannot be
controlled by any single entity nor does it have a single point of failure. By storing data across its
network, the blockchain eliminates the risks that come with data being held centrally. Blockchain
networks lack centralized points of vulnerability that computer hackers can exploit easily.

Today’s Internet has security problems that are familiar to everyone. We all rely on username
and password credentials to access our assets online. Blockchain uses encryption technology
to improve security. By allowing data and information to be widely distributed, blockchain
technology has created the backbone of the new Internet, web3. Though it was originally devised
for the digital currency Bitcoin, the business and technology communities are finding many uses
for blockchain. Knowledge of this new technology will be required by not only programmers but
by all businesses. In the next five to ten years, blockchain will change the business models in all
types of industries—and perhaps change the way people work and live.

We have been involved in computing technology since its first practical use on Wall Street
circa 1974. We have used and written about the evolving technology tools starting with IBM
Assembler, Fortran, COBOL, and data access methods like QSAM, BDAM, and VSAM, all the
way to present-day REST web services, Java, and SQL and everything in between (including
client/server tools like PowerBuilder). We have been fortunate in that our passions for learning
and becoming proficient in each new and emerging technology have served us well in the
business community. We recognized blockchain technology as an ingenious invention, as it
combines the best of what came before it in database design, cryptography, and virtual machine
containers with the very capable distributed computing environment of today. Our passion for
the technology was based on love at first sight. We have brought together a robust network of
blockchain entrepreneurs, fellow blockchain technologists, and others who have made critical
contributions to the coverage and text of this book.

Target Audience
The target audience for this book includes anyone interested in blockchain technology as well
as its use cases. It is also for anyone developing a blockchain application—what is required to
build solutions in this space. Additionally, web and application developers of all levels as well
as tech-savvy businesspeople and even attorneys who want to stay current with technology in
general and blockchain specifically would find the discussions in this book of interest.

What This Book Covers
The book covers blockchain definition, use cases, distributed technology, and especially
blockchain development, with a good deal of code snippets and best practices. It targets the
Ethereum blockchain, introducing Solidity and other aspects of the Ethereum framework.
Additionally, there are two chapters devoted to setup, coding, validation, and deployment of a
complete and comprehensive blockchain betting application.

How to Use This Book
Each chapter in the book can stand alone, describing a particular aspect of blockchain
technology and its use cases. That said, there is a sequence whereby each chapter builds on the
previous chapters to provide a solid conceptual understanding of blockchain. This is coupled
with a comprehensive treatment for getting started as a designer and developer of blockchain
applications. This includes the Ethereum technology stack and code, and deployment
techniques and examples, including an entire application from code start to deployment finish.

How This Book Is Organized
In Chapter 1, we provide an overview of everything blockchain. We introduce it as a distributed
database technology with the capability to execute smart contracts. The expanding universe
of blockchain application is covered. The efficiencies and cost savings provided by blockchain
technologies—especially the private blockchains adopted by the financial community—are also
briefly examined. In parallel, the use of blockchain is shown to affect global transactions, and
this will push it forward toward maturity. Blockchain and its timing are critical to maintaining
global transactions and providing trust in the integrity of those transactions. For these reasons
and more, we argue that blockchain is here to stay, and the chapters herein will provide you with
a comprehensive map and toolset with what you need as a designer or developer to successfully
make the trip.
While blockchain technology is at the heart of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum,
it clearly is a technology with widespread applicability in many sectors of business. Chapter 2
gives some depth to real-world use cases in the financial services industry, including sections on
cryptocurrency and digital tokens. We then show how common business use cases ultimately
lead to faster throughput, reduced costs, improved accuracy, greater transparency, and quality,
reliability, simplicity, and traceability.
The chapter also discusses smart property and smart contracts and how they can be used in
conjunction in the not-too-distant future of blockchain technology. Chapter 2 closes with how
blockchain and the Internet of Things (IoT) will have a consortium of startups and companies
to help define and refine security and interoperability, management, and coordination between
connected devices. While IoT is still in its early stages of evolution and currently comprises
mostly technologies that either collect data or allow remote monitoring and control, this will
change as devices become smarter and artificial intelligence is added. This network of things
will transition toward becoming a network of autonomous devices that talk to each other and
(hopefully) make smart decisions without the need for human intervention or interpretation.
In short, we live in exciting times for blockchain technology.
Chapter 3 introduces some of the components of the Web 3.0 architecture. Distributed
networking and storage are happening now and promise solutions that could save the global
economy trillions annually. The Web today needs a new security model and an architecture
designed around contemporary use cases. The technology stack is just beginning to emerge.
It includes Swarm, IPFS, Storj, Golem, and Whisper, just to mention a few of a growing
number of components that represent the most ambitious solutions to this problem.
As the global infrastructure adapts to the new demands we are putting on it, unforeseen
opportunities will open before us. New tools will change not only the way we work and use web
conveniences but also the way we organize ourselves in groups. We are living in an interesting
time in history, where the Web begins to bring more knowledge and action capacity for its
users, resulting in considerable changes in several aspects of daily life. This new Web is moving
fast toward a more dynamic environment, where the democratization of the capacity of action
and knowledge can speed up business in almost all areas. Imagine a future with hundreds of real
decentralized applications—for example, one in charge of registering land titles and mortgages
and handling local taxes, and a more general application in charge of managing the supply chain
of registered tenants, their monthly lease payments, as well as mortgage and expense payments.
One could easily link information from properties registered in the first application with the
tenants and their use of the properties registered in the second application. All this in an easy
way using the whole stack of semantic web technology and—something that is not possible to
date—ensuring that all data is 100 percent true, guaranteed by the smart contracts. The real
questions we must ask are: How will the world of Web 3.0 differ from the world of Web 2.0?
How will this technology penetrate beyond the cultures that created it? One thing is for sure:
blockchain will be at the center of this new world.
Chapter 4 is primarily about blockchain and the law. We show that smart contracts may
be the most transformative current blockchain component, especially for lawyers. We explore
why Professors Marco Iansiti and Karim R. Lakhani of the Harvard Business School said:
“The implications are fascinating. . . . If contracts are automated, then what will happen
to traditional firm structures, processes, and intermediaries like lawyers and accountants?
. . . Their roles would all radically change. . . . [W]e are decades away from the widespread
adoption of smart contracts. . . . A tremendous degree of coordination and clarity on how
smart contracts are designed, verified, implemented, and enforced will be required. We
believe the institutions responsible for those daunting tasks will take a long time to evolve.
And the technology challenges—especially security—are daunting. . . . [L]aw firms will
have to change to make smart contracts viable. They’ll need to develop new expertise in
software and blockchain programming.”
The chapter also explores how blockchain provides new possibilities for the way we interact and
exchange information, and as such brings forth challenging and complex legal issues and pushes
the boundaries of existing laws. We see that blockchain technology is something that our laws
will have to adapt to, just as they adapted to the Internet, medical technology, e-discovery, and
social media. There is a huge change before us as lawyers and as developers to embrace it and be
part of its evolution.
We show how regulation around blockchain is still up in the air, not only globally but also
in each state here in the United States. Businesses operating in regulated industries should seek
guidance from their regulators before integrating critical, customer-facing, or data-handling
processes with platforms like Ethereum. We examine the large strides made in the financial
services arena with private and consortium varieties of blockchain. We see clearly that this is an
indication that financial institutions are playing in and watching this space very closely.
Chapter 5 covers terminology (including block attributes) and concepts as well as the
technology stack, blockchain development platforms, and APIs. It also covers the Ethereum
Virtual Machine and Ethereum dapps, DAOs, and autonomous smart contracts.
In Chapter 6, we introduce the Solidity smart contract programming language and the tools
that make it simple and easy to fast-track deploy a smart contract to the Ethereum blockchain. In
this chapter, you get to create your first simple smart contract.
In Chapter 7, we introduce tools and techniques that are a little more complicated and
support a workflow to handle the development of more complex solutions.
In Chapter 8, we look into use cases for private and consortium blockchain solutions. We
review private blockchain technology such as Hyperledger, Monax, Ethereum, Hyperledger
Fabric, Quorum, and the Hyperledger tools Cello, Composer, and Explorer. We explore the
many options for permissioned private blockchains and show why the list is likely to grow. In
many cases, government/industry regulation dictates that private control will be needed. That
being said, the freedom, neutrality, and openness that started Bitcoin on the public blockchain
are important to keep in mind. The focus of decentralizing control and consensus on the public
platform is clearly something to think about. There is a great deal of chatter and concern around
privacy, identity, speed, and cost of the public blockchain solutions. It is important to note
that by creating privately administered smart contracts on public blockchains, or cross-chain
exchange layers that sit in between public and private blockchains, it is possible to deliver some
degree of the properties of private blockchains on the public platforms. Time will tell if these
types of capabilities and properties ever get built into the public blockchain.
While blockchains are heralded as a technological breakthrough that will solve many
problems, it’s clear that they face a large number of unique challenges. Chapter 9 reviews
these challenges and why they are not insurmountable, though they require a lot of work to
develop infrastructure and safety mechanisms to overcome them.
In Chapter 10, we introduce the development life cycle of a fully functioning betting
application built on Ethereum. While the focus was primarily on coding with Solidity, we made
sure to provide the reader with an entire application and explain each line of code and every
setup move required to build the application.
In Chapter 11, we show the reader how to deploy the application built in Chapter 10.
We also step through the development of a simple front end to run the application. If you have
read, understood, and tried some of the code in this chapter, you can now write new scripts
to deploy and test your own smart contracts. You can create a contract, and you can create a
front end to interact with it. In short, once you get through this whole book, you will be ready
to design, code, test, and deploy an Ethereum blockchain application.
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