Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction

Helen,  Jenny, Yvonne

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Interaction Design:
Beyond Human-Computer Interaction

Welcome to Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction, and our interactive
website at
This textbook is for undergraduate and masters students from a range of backgrounds
studying classes in human-computer interaction, interaction design, web
design, etc. A broad range of professionals and technology users will also find this
book useful, and so will graduate students who are moving into this area from related
Our book is called Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction
because it is concerned with a broader scope of issues, topics, and paradigms than
has traditionally been the scope of human-computer interaction (HCI). This reflects
the exciting times we are living in, when there has never been a greater need for interaction
designers and usability engineers to develop current and next-generation
interactive technologies. To be successful they will need a mixed set of skills from
psychology, human-computer interaction, web design, computer science, information
systems, marketing, entertainment, and business.
What exactly do we mean by interaction design? In essence, we define interaction
design as:
"designing interactive products to support people in their everyday and working lives".
This entails creating user experiences that enhance and extend the way people
work, communicate, and interact. Now that it is widely accepted that HCI has
moved beyond designing computer systems for one user sitting in front of one machine
to embrace new paradigms, we, likewise, have covered a wider range of issues.
These include ubiquitous computing and pervasive computing that make use
of wireless and collaborative technologies. We also have tried to make the book
up-to-date with many examples from contemporary research.
The book has 15 chapters and includes discussion of how cognitive, social, and
affective issues apply to interaction design. A central theme is that design and evaluation
are interleaving, highly iterative processes, with some roots in theory but
which rely strongly on good practice to create usable products. The book has a
'hands-on' orientation and explains how to carry out a variety of techniques. It also
has a strong pedagogical design and includes many activities (with detailed comments),
assignments, and the special pedagogic features discussed below.
The style of writing is intended to be accessible to students, as well as professionals
and general readers, so it is conversational and includes anecdotes, cartoons,
and case studies. Many of the examples are intended to relate to readers'
own experiences. The book and the associated website encourage readers to be active
when reading and to think about seminal issues. For example, one feature we
have included in the book is the "dilemma," where a controversial topic is aired.
The aim is for readers to understand that much of interaction design needs 
consideration of the issues, and that they need to learn to weigh-up the pros and cons and
be prepared to make trade-offs. We particularly want readers to realize that there
is rarely a right or wrong answer although there are good designs and poor designs.
This book is accompanied by a website, which provides a variety of resources
and interactivities, The website offers a place where readers can learn how to design
websites and other kinds of multimedia interfaces. Rather than just provide a list of
guidelines and design principles, we have developed various interactivities, including
online tutorials and step-by-step exercises, intended to support learning by doing.

Many people have helped to make this book a reality. We have benefited from the
advice and support of our many professional colleagues across the world, our students,
friends, and families and we thank you all. We also warmly thank the following
people for reviewing the manuscript and making many helpful suggestions for improvements:
Liam Bannon, Sara Bly, Penny Collings, Paul Dourish, Jean Gasen,
Peter Gregor, Stella Mills, Rory O'Connor, Scott Toolson, Terry Winograd, Richard
Furuta, Robert J.K. Jacob, Blair Nonnecke, William Buxton, Carol Traynor, Blaise
Liffich, Jan Scott, Sten Hendrickson, Ping Zhang, Lyndsay Marshall, Gary Perlman,
Andrew Dillon, Michael Harrison, Mark Crenshaw, Laurie Dingers, David Carr,
Steve Howard, David Squires, George Weir, Marilyn Tremaine, Bob Fields, Frances
Slack, Ian Graham, Alan O'Callaghan, Sylvia Wilbur, and several anonymous reviewers.
We also thank Geraldine Fitzpatrick, Tim and Dirk from DSTC (Australia)
for their feedback on Chapters 1 and 4, Mike Scaife, Harry Brignull, Matt Davies,
the HCCS Masters students at Sussex University (2000-2001), Stephanie Wilson
and the students from the School of Informatics at City University and Information
Systems Department at UMBC for their comments.
We are particularly grateful to Sara Bly, Karen Holtzblatt, Jakob Nielsen, Abigail
Sellen, Suzanne Robertson, Gitta Salomon, Ben Shneiderman, Gillian Crampton
Smith, and Terry Winograd for generously contributing in-depth interviews.
Lili Cheng and her colleagues allowed us to use the Hutchworld case study.
Bill Killam provided the TRZS case study. Keith Cogdill supplied the MEDLZNEplus
case study. We thank Lili, Bill, and Keith for supplying the basic reports and
commenting on various drafts. Jon Lazar and Dorine Andrews contributed material
for the section on questionnaires, which we thank them for.
We are grateful to our Editors Paul Crockett and Gaynor Redvers-Mutton and
the production team at Wiley: Maddy Lesure, Susannah Barr, Anna Melhorn,
Gemma Quilter, and Ken Santor. Without their help and skill this book would not
have been produced. Bill Zobrist and Simon Plumtree played a significant role in
persuading us to work with Wiley and we thank them too.

Special features
We use both the textbook and the web to teach about interaction design. To promote
good pedagogical practice we include the following features:
Chapter design
Each chapter is designed to motivate and support learning:
Aims are provided so that readers develop an accurate model of what to expect
in the chapter.
Key points at the end of the chapter summarize what is important.
Activities are included throughout the book and are considered an essential
ingredient for learning. They encourage readers to extend and apply their
knowledge. Comments are offered directly after the activities, because pedagogic
research suggests that turning to the back of the text annoys readers
and discourages learning.
An assignment is provided at the end of each chapter. This can be set as a
group or individual project. The aim is for students to put into practice and
consolidate knowledge and skills either from the chapter that they have just
studied or from several chapters. Some of the assignments build on each
other and involve developing and evaluating designs or actual products.
Hints and guidance are provided on the website.
Boxes provide additional and highlighted information for readers to reflect
upon in more depth.
Dilemmas offer honest and thought-provoking coverage of controversial or
problematic issues.
Further reading suggestions are provided at the end of each chapter. These
refer to seminal work in the field, interesting additional material, or work
that has been heavily drawn upon in the text.
Interviews with nine practitioners and visionaries in the field enable readers
to gain a personal perspective of the interviewees' work, their philosophies,
their ideas about what is important, and their contributions to the field.
Cartoons are included to make the book enjoyable. website
The aim of the website is to provide you with an opportunity to learn about interaction
design in ways that go "beyond the book." Additional in-depth material,
hands-on interactivities, a student's corner and informal tutorials will be provided.
Specific features planned include:
Hands-on interactivities, including designing a questionnaire, customizing a
set of heuristics, doing a usability analysis on 'real' data, and interactive tools
to support physical design.

Recent case studies.
Student's corner where you will be able to send in your designs, thoughts,
written articles which, if suitable, will be posted on the site at specified times
during the year.
Hints and guidance on the assignments outlined in the book.
Suggestions for additional material to be used in seminars, lab classes, and lectures.
Key terms and concepts (with links to where to find out more about them).
This book will be useful to a wide range of readers with different needs and aspirations.
Students from Computer Science, Software Engineering, Information Systems,
Psychology, Sociology, and related disciplines studying courses in Interaction Design
and Human-Computer Interaction will learn the knowledge, skills, and techniques
for designing and evaluating state-of-the-art products, and websites, as well
as traditional computer systems.

Web and Interaction Designers, and Usability Professionals will find plenty to
satisfy their need for immediate answers to problems as well as for building skills to
satisfy the demands of today's fast moving technical market.
Users, who want to understand why certain products can be used with ease
while others are unpredictable and frustrating, will take pleasure in discovering
that there is a discipline with practices that produce usable systems.
Researchers and developers who are interested in exploiting the potential of the
web, wireless, and collaborative technologies will find that, as well as offering guidance,
techniques, and much food for thought, a special effort has been made to include
examples of state-of-the-art systems.
In the next section we recommend various routes through the text for different
kinds of readers.

How to use this book
Interaction Design is not a linear design process but is essentially iterative and
some readers and experienced instructors will want tb find their own way through
the chapters. Others, and particularly those with less experience, may prefer to
work through chapter by chapter. Readers will also have different needs. For example,
students in Psychology will come with different background knowledge and
needs from those in Computer Science. Similarly, professionals wanting to learn
the fundamentals in a one-week course have different needs. This book and the
website are designed for using in various ways. The following suggestions are provided
to help you decide which way is best for you.

From beginning to end
There are fifteen chapters so students can study one chapter per week during a
fifteen-week semester course. Chapter 15 contains design and evaluation case studies.
Our intention is that these case studies help to draw together the contents of the
rest of the book by showing how design and evaluation are done in the real world.
However, some readers may prefer to dip into them along the way.
Getting a quick overview
For those who want to get a quick overview or just the essence of the book, we
suggest you read Chapters 1, 6, and 10. These chapters are recommended for

Suggestions for computer science students
In addition to reading Chapters 1,6, and 10, Chapters 7 and 8 contain the material
that will feel most familiar to any students who have been introduced to software
development. These chapters cover the process of interaction design and the activities
it involves, including establishing requirements, conceptual design, and physical
design. The book itself does not include any coding exercises, but the website
will provide tools and widgets with which to interact.
For those following the ACM-IEEE Curriculum (2001)*, you will find that this
text and website cover most of this curriculum. The topics listed under each of the
following headings are discussed in the chapters shown:
HC1 Foundations of Human-Computer Interaction (Chapters 1-5, 14, website).
HC2 Building a simple graphical user interface (Chapters 1,6,8,10 and the website).
HC3 Human-Centered Software Evaluation (Chapters 1,10-15, website).
HC4 Human-Centered Software Design (Chapters 1,6-9,15).
HC5 Graphical User-Interface Design (Chapters 2 and 8 and the website.
Many relevant examples are discussed in Chapters 1-5 integrated with discussion
of cognitive and social issues).
HC6 Graphical User-Interface Programming (touched upon only in Chapters
7-9 and on the website).
HC7 HCI Aspects of Multimedia Information Systems and the web (integrated
into the discussion of Chapters 1-5, and in examples throughout the
text, and on the website).
HC8 HCI Aspects of Group Collaboration and Communication Technology
(discussed in 1-5, particularly in Chapter 4. Chapters 6-15 discuss design and
evaluation and some examples cover these systems, as does the website.)

Suggestions for information systems students
Information systems students will benefit from reading the whole text, but instructors
may want to find additional examples of their own to illustrate how issues apply to
business applications. Some students may be tempted to skip Chapters 3-5 but we recommend
that they should read these chapters since they provide important foundational
material. This book does not cover how to develop business cases or marketing.
Suggestions for psychology and cognitive science students
Chapters 3-5 cover how theory and research findings have been applied to interaction
design. They discuss the relevant issues and provide a wide range of studies
and systems that have been informed by cognitive, social, and affective issues.
Chapters 1 and 2 also cover important conceptual knowledge, necessary for having
a good grounding in interaction design.

Practitioner and short course route
Many people want the equivalent of a short intensive 2-5 day course. The best
route for them is to read Chapters 1,6,10 and 11 and dip into the rest of the book
for reference. For those who want practical skills, we recommend Chapter 8.
Plan your own path
For people who do not want to follow the "beginning-to-end" approach or the suggestions
above, there are many ways to use the text. Chapters 1,6,10 and 11 provide
a good overview of the topic. Chapter 1 is an introduction to key issues in the discipline
and Chapters 6 and 10 offer introductions to design and evaluation. Then go
to Chapters 2-5 for user issues, then on to the other design chapters, 2-9, dipping
into the evaluation chapters 10-14 and the case studies in 15. Another approach is to
start with one or two of the evaluation chapters after first reading Chapters 1, 6, 10
and 11, then move into the design section, drawing on Chapters 2-5 as necessary.
Web designer route
Web designers who have a background in technology and want to learn how to design
usable and effective websites are advised to read Chapters 1, 7, 8, 13 and 14.
These chapters cover key issues that are important when designing and evaluating
the usability of websites. A worked assignment runs through these chapters.
Usability professionals' route
Usability professionals who want to extend their knowledge of evaluation techniques
and read about the social and psychological issues that underpin design of the web,
wireless, and collaborative systems are advised to read Chapter 1 for an overview,
then select from Chapters 10-14 on usability testing. Chapters 3,4, and 5 provide discussion
of seminal user issues (cognitive, social, and affective aspects). There is new
material throughout the rest of the book, which will also be of interest for dipping
into as needed. This group may also be particularly interested in Chapter 8 which, together
with material on the book website, provides practical design examples.

About the authors
The authors are all senior academics with a background in teaching, researching,
and consulting in the UK, USA, Canada, Australia, and Europe. Having worked
together on two other successful text books, they bring considerable experience in
curriculum development, using a variety of media for distance learning as well as
face-to-face teaching. They have considerable knowledge of creating learning texts
and websites that motivate and support learning for a range of students.
All three authors are specialists in interaction design and human-computer interaction
(HCI). In addition they bring skills from other discipline~. Yvonne
Rogers is a cognitive scientist, Helen Sharp is a software engineer, and Jenny
Preece works in information systems. Their complementary knowledge and skills
enable them to cover the breadth of concepts in interaction design and HCI to produce
an interdisciplinary text and website. They have collaborated closely, supporting
and commenting upon each other's work to produce a high degree of
integration of ideas with one voice. They have shared everything from initial concepts,
through writing, design and production.


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 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 What is interaction design? 1
1 .I Introduction 1
1.2 Good and poor design 2
1.2.1 What to design 4
1.3 What is interaction design? 6
1.3.1 The makeup of interaction design 6
1.3.2 Working together as a multidisciplinary team 9
1.3.3 Interaction design in business 10
1.4 What is involved in the process of interaction design? 12
1.5 The goals of interaction design 13
1.5.1 Usability goals 1 A
1.5.2 User experience goals 18
1.6 More on usability: design and usability principles 20
1.6.1 Heuristics and usability principles 26
Interview with Gitta Salomon 3 1
Chapter 2 Understanding and concep~alizingin teraction 35
2.1 lntroduction 35
2.2 Understanding the problem space 36
2.3 Conceptual models 39
2.3.1 Conceptual models based on activities 41
2.3.2 Conceptual models based on objects 51
2.3.3 A case of mix and match? 54
2.4 Interface metaphors 55
2.5 Interaction paradigms 60
2.6 From conceptual models to physical design 64
Interview with Terry Winograd 70
Chapter 3 Understanding users 73
3.1 Introduction 73
3.2 What is cognition? 74
3.3 Applying knowledge from the physical world to the digital world 90
3.4 Conceptual frameworks for cognition 92
3.4.1 Mental models 92
3.4.2 Information processing 96
3.4.3 External cognition 98
3.5 Informing design: from theory to practice 101
Chapter 4 Designing for collaboration and communica~ion 105
4.1 Introduction 105
4.2 Social mechanisms used in communication and collaboration 106
4.2.1 Conversational mechanisms 107
4.2.2 Designing collaborative technologies to support conversation 110
4.2.3 Coordination mechanisms 1 18
4.2.4 Designing collaborative technologies to support coordination 122
4.2.5 Awareness mechanisms 124
4.2.6 Designing collaborative technologies to support awareness 126
4.3 Ethnographic studies of collaboration and communication 129
4.4 Conceptual frameworks 130
4.4.1 The language/action framework 130
4.4.2 Distributed cognition 133
Interview with Abigail Sellen 138
Chapter 5 Understanding how interfaces affect users 141
5.1 lntroduction 141
5.2 What are affective aspects? 142
5.3 Expressive interfaces 143
5.4 User frustration 147
5.4.1 Dealing with user frustration 152
5.5 A debate: the application of anthropomorphism to interaction design 153
5.6 Virtual characters: agents 157
5.6.1 Kinds of agents 1 57
5.6.2 General design concerns 160
Chapter 6 The process of interaction design 165
6.1 Introduction 165
6.2 What is interaction design about? 166
6.2.1 Four basic activities of interaction design 1 68
6.2.2 Three key characteristics of the interaction design process 170
6.3 Some practical issues 170
6.3.1 Who are the users? 171
6.3.2 What do we mean by "needs"? 172
6.3.3 How do you generate alternative designs? 174
6.3.4 How do you choose among alternative designs? 179
6.4 Lifecycle models: showing how the activities are related I 82
6.4.1 A simple lifecycle model for interaction design 186
6.4.2 Lifecycle models in software engineering 187
6.4.3 Lifecycle models in HCI 192
Interview with Gillian Crampton Smith 198
Identifying needs and establishing requirements 201
7.1 Introduction 201
7.2 What, how, and why? 202
7.2.1 What are we trying to achieve in this design activity? 202
7.2.2 How can we achieve this? 202
7.2.3 Why bother? The importance of getting it right 203
7.2.4 Why establish requirements? 204
7.3 What are requirements? 204
7.3.1 Different kinds of requirements 205
7.4 Data gathering 21 0
7.4.1 Data-gathering techniques 21 1
7.4.2 Choosing between techniques 21 5
7.4.3 Some basic datmgathering guidelines 21 6
7.5 Data interpretation and analysis 21 9
7.6 Task description 222
7.6.1 Scenarios 223
7.6.2 Use cases 226
7.6.3 Essential use cases 229
7.7 Task analysis 231
7.7.1 Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) 231
Interview with Suzanne Robertson 236
Design, prototyping and construction 239
8.1 lntroduction 239
8.2 Prototyping and construction 240
8.2.1 What is a prototype? 240
8.2.2 Why prototype? 241
8.2.3 Low-fidelity prototyping 243
8.2.4 High-fidelity prototyping 245
8.2.5 Compromises in prototyping 246
8.2.6 Construction: from design to implementation 248
8.3 Conceptual design: moving from requirements to first design 249
8.3.1 Three perspectives for developing a conceptual model 250
8.3.2 Expanding the conceptual model 257
8.3.3 Using scenarios in conceptual design 259
8.3.4 Using prototypes in conceptual design 262
8.4 Physical design: getting concrete 264
8.4.1 Guidelines for physical design 266
8.4.2 Different kinds of widget 268
8.5 Tool support 275
Chapter 9 User-centered approaches to interaction design 279
9.1 Introduction 279
9.2 Why is it important to involve users at all? 280
9.2.1 Degrees of involvement 281
9.3 What is a user-centered approach? 285
9.4 Understanding users' work: applying ethnography in design 288
9.4.1 Coherence 293
9.4.2 Contextual Design 295
9.5 involving users in design: Participatory Design 306
9.5.1 PICTIVE 307
9.5.2 CARD 309
Interview with Karen Holtzblatt 31 3
Chapter 1 0 Introducing evaluation 31 7
1 0.1 Introduction 31 7
10.2 What, why, and when to evaluate 31 8
10.2.1 What to evaluate 31 8
10.2.2 Why you need to evaluate 31 9
10.2.3 When to evaluate 323
10.3 Hutchworld case study 324
1 0.3.1 How the team got started: early design ideas 324
10.3.2 How was the testing done? 327
10.3.3 Was it tested again? 333
10.3.4 Looking to the future 334
10.4 Discussion 336
Chapter 1 1 An evaluation framework 339
1 1 .1 Introduction 339
1 1.2 Evaluation paradigms and techniques 340
1 1.2.1 Evaluation paradigms 341
1 1.2.2 Techniques 345
1 1.3 D E C I D E: A framework to guide evaluation 348
1 1.3.1 Determine the goals 348
1 1.3.2 Explore the questions 349
1 1.3.3 Choose the evaluation paradigm and techniques 349
1 1.3.4 identify the practical issues 350
1 1.3.5 Decide how to deal with the ethical issues 351
1 1.3.6 Evaluate, interpret, and present the data 355
1 1.4 pilot studies 356
Chapter 12 Observing users 359
1 2.1 Introduction 359
12.2 Goals, questions and paradigms 360
12.2.1 What and when to observe 361
1 2.2.2 Approaches to observation 363
1 2.3 How to observe 364
12.3.1 In controlled environments 365
1 2.3.2 In the field 368
12.3.3 Participant observation and ethnography 370
12.4 Data collection 373
12.4.1 Notes plus still camera 374
12.4.2 Audio recording plus still camera 374
12.4.3 Video 374
1 2.5 Indirect observation: tracking users' activities 377
12.5.1 Diaries 377
12.5.2 Interaction logging 377
12.6 Analyzing, interpreting and presenting data 379
12.6.1 Qualitative analysis to tell a story 380
1 2.6.2 Qualitative analysis for categorization 381
12.6.3 Quantitative data analysis 384
12.6.4 Feeding the findings back into design 384
Interview with Sara Bb 387
Chapter 13 Asking users and experts 389
1 3.1 introduction 389
1 3.2 Aking users: interviews 390
13.2.1 Developing questions and planning an interview 390
13.2.2 Unstructured interviews 392
13.2.3 Structured interviews 394
13.2.4 Semi-structured interviews 394
13.2.5 Group interviews 396
1 3.2.6 Other sources of interview-li ke feedback 397
1 3.2.7 Data analysis and interpretation 398
13.3 Asking users: Questionnaires 398
13.3.1 Designing questionnaires 398
1 3.3.2 Question and response format 400
13.3.3 Administering questionnaires 404
13.3.4 Online questionnaires 405
1 3.3.5 Analyzing questionnaire data 407
13.4 Asking experts: Inspections 407
13.4.1 Heuristic evaluation 408
1 3.4.2 Doing heuristic evaluation 41 0
1 3.4.3 Heuristic evaluation of websites 41 2
1 3.4.4 Heuristics for other devices 41 9
1 3.5 Asking experts: walkthroughs 420
I 3.5.1 Cognitive walkthroughs 420
1 3.5.2 Pluralistic walkthroughs 423
Interview with Jakob Nielsen 426
Chapter 14 Testing and modeling users 429
1 4.1 Introduction 429
14.2 User testing 430
14.2.1 Testing MEDLINE~~us4 32
14.3 Doing user testing 438
14.3.1 Determine the goals and explore the questions 439
14.3.2 Choose the paradigm and techniques 439
14.3.3 Identify the practical issues: Design typical tasks 439
14.3.4 Identify the practical issues: Select typical users 440
14.3.5 Identify the practical issues: Prepare the testing conditions 441
14.3.6 Identify the practical issues: Plan how to run the tests 442
1 4.3.7 Deal with ethical issues 443
14.3.8 Evaluate, analyze, and present the data 443
14.4 Experiments 443
14.4.1 Variables and conditions 444
14.4.2 Allocation of participants to conditions 445
14.4.3 Other issues 446
14.4.4 Data collection and analysis 446
1 4.5 Predictive models 448
1 4.5.1 The WMS model 449
1 4.5.2 The Keystroke level model 450
14.5.3 Benefits and limitations of WMS 453
14.5.4 Fitts' Law 454
Interview with Ben Shneiderman 457
Chapter 15 Design and evaluation in the real world: 
communicators and advisory systems 461
15.1 Introduction 461
15.2 Key Issues 462
15.3 Designing mobile communicators 463
15.3.1 Background 463
15.3.2 Nokia's approach to developing a communicator 464
15.3.3 Philip's approach to designing a communicator for children 474
15.4 Redesigning part of a large interactive phone-based response system 482
1 5.4.1 Background 483
15.4.2 The redesign 483
Reflections from the Authors 491
References 493
Credits 503
Index 509

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