Creating Web Pages For Dummies 7 Edition. Wiley

by Bud E. Smith and Arthur Bebak

No Experoence Required! Build Your Own Web Pages and Graphics

Create a Web Page Today
Building Pages
Better, Stronger, Faster Pages
Getting Interactive
The Part of Tens

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Creating Web Pages For Dummies 7 Edition


About the Authors
Bud E. Smith is a computer book author with over 12 years of publishing
experience. Creating Web Pages For Dummies, 7th Edition, is one of over a
dozen books Bud has written; his Wiley Publishing, Inc. titles include Internet
Marketing For Dummies and Web Usability For Dummies. In addition to writing
books, Bud has been a computer magazine editor and product marketing manager.

Bud got his start with computers in 1983, when he left a promising career as
a welder for a stint as a data-entry clerk. Bud then moved to the Silicon Valley
to join a startup company, followed by work for Intel, IBM, Apple, and AOL.
His work and interests led him to acquire a degree in Information Systems
Management from the University of San Francisco.

Arthur Bebak received a degree in Computer Engineering at the University of
Illinois, which he attended on a fencing scholarship. He has designed mainframes,
managed large engineering projects, and studied business administration.
Arthur is founder of Netsurfer Communications, Inc., a highly successful
electronic publishing company, and is an accomplished author.

At Netsurfer, Arthur oversees a large staff of people who create Web sites for
numerous clients. They also write, edit, and publish several Web-based e-zines.

Authors’ Acknowledgments
The authors thank Steve Hayes, acquisitions editor, and the staff that helped
produce this book: Editors Paul Levesque, Rebecca Senninger, and Nicole
Haims, Technical Editor Danilo Celic, as well as the many other people
responsible for page layout, proofreading, indexing, and graphic art.

The Web was built more for love than for money, and that tradition was continued
by the many people who generously gave their time and support for
this book. We especially thank the providers of Web tools who supplied us
with an excellent set of programs for the CD-ROM and the Web authors who
agreed to let us use their sites for the figures in this book.

Introduction

It may be hard to remember, or it may seem like only yesterday, but some
years ago, the personal computer was introduced. The rise and rise and
rise of the personal computer — with maybe an occasional stumble but never
a real fall — seemed certain to be the most important social and technological
event at the end of the twentieth century. From Wozniak and Jobs’s Apple
II to Bill Gates’s Windows 95, nothing, it seemed could ever be bigger, or more
life-changing and important, than PCs.

But, people do talk. In fact, talking is one of the main things that people are
all about, and in the beginning, the personal computer didn’t let you interact
with others. However, first with modems, and then with networks, and finally
through their combination and culmination in the Internet, personal computers
became the tools that opened up a new medium of communication. The most
visible and exciting part of the Internet is the World Wide Web. Now communication,
not computation, is the story. Computers are still important, but mostly
as the means to an end; the end result is to enable people to interact.

If the most exciting channel of communication is the Web, the means of communication
is the Web page. Ordinary people demonstrate amazing energy
and imagination in creating and publishing diverse Web home pages. And
although ordinary people have a desire to create Web pages, businesses have
a need to set up shop on the Web. So the rush to the Web continues, often
with the same people expressing themselves personally on one Web page and
commercially on another.

So you want to be there, too. “But,” you ask, “Isn’t it difficult, expensive, and
complicated?” Not any more. As the Web has grown, easy ways to get on the
Web have appeared. And we discuss the best of them in the pages of this book.

About This Book
Seriously, what do you find here? Easy ways to get published on the Web for
any kind of Internet user we could think of. Ways to make your first Web page
rich with carefully arranged text, graphics, and multimedia. Plus the information
you need to go beyond your first Web page and create a multipage personal
or business Web site. And tools (tools that we describe in the book or
provide as demos or in full versions on the CD-ROM) to help you go as far as
you want to go in creating a Web site.

Foolish Assumptions
Lots of good information is in this book, but almost no one is going to read
every word of it — except our long-suffering editor. That’s because we cover
Web page topics from beginning through intermediate levels, including how
to publish a Web page via Web-based services and the major online services,
how to use several different tools, and some Windows-specific and Macspecific
stuff. No one needs to know all of that! But anyone who wants to get
a Web page up on the Web does need to know some of it.

But what do you need? We assume, for purposes of this book, that you have
probably used the Web before and that you want to create a Web page. We
further assume that you are not yet a Web author, or that you’re fairly new
to the process. To use the information in this book, you need access to a personal
computer running Windows or Mac OS, and you need access to the
Web — either through an online service or an Internet service provider (ISP).
You should be running a Web browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer,
Netscape Navigator, or a browser provided by an online service. If you have
a UNIX system and an Internet connection, much of this book works for you,
but you don’t have access to the online service or Web page creation tools
that we describe, except those available directly on the Web.

If you don’t have Web access from your personal computer, see Appendix B
for a list of service providers who can help you get it. You should already
have spent some time surfing the Web, or be willing to do so as you gather
information and examples for your Web page. In other words, if you’re wired,
or willing to get wired, you’re in. With that, the door to this book is open to
you, whether you want to create your first Web page or add new features to
one you already have.

The figures in this book show up-to-date Windows screen shots for a consistent
appearance. We wrote the instructions and steps in this book to work
equally well for Windows and the Macintosh.

Jump around in the book and go straight to information that you need. Later,
you can back up and read something that interests you, page through the
how-to sections, try using one of the tools on the CD-ROM, and then go look
at something on the Creating Web Pages For Dummies home page (created by
one of the authors) at the following address: www.creating-web-pages.com

Conventions Used in This Book
When our publisher first told us that this book was going to have conventions,
we got out our silly hats and our Democratic and Republican paraphernalia,
but apparently she just meant that we had to be consistent. The
conventions in this book are standard ways of communicating specific types
of information, such as instructions and steps. (One example of a convention
is the use of italics for newly introduced words — as with the word “conventions”
in the first sentence of this paragraph.)
Here are the conventions for this book:
Things that you, the reader, are asked to type are shown in bold.
New terms are printed in italics.
Information used in specific ways is formatted in a specific typeface. In
this book, one of the most common kinds of information displayed this
way is HTML tags; that is, formatting information used to create Web
pages (see Appendix A for a more complete definition). An example of a
tag is <TITLE>.
We also use a special typeface for URLs (Uniform Resource Locators),
which are the addresses used to specify the location of Web pages. For
example, the URL for the For Dummies Web site is www.dummies.com.
The Web is fast-paced and evolving. By the time you read this book,
some of the URLs listed in it may have changed.
Representative browser versions appear among the figures.
Menu selections look like this: File➪Save. This particular example means
that you choose the File menu and then choose the Save option. The
underlined letters represent Windows shortcut keys — hold down the
Alt key and press the first shortcut key, and then press the second shortcut
key (with or without Alt held down) to make the selection.
Related, brief pieces of information are displayed in bulleted lists, such
as the bulleted list that you’re reading right now.
Numbered lists are used for instructions that you must follow in a particular
sequence. This book has many sequential steps that tell you just
how to perform the different tasks that, when taken together, can make
you a successful Web author.

To make the steps brief and easy to follow, we use a specific way of
telling you what to do. Here’s an example of a set of steps:
1. Start your Web browser.
2. Go to the Web site www.tryfreestuff.com.
Note: This site is not real, just an example.
3. Click the link that matches the type of computer you have: PC, Macintosh or UNIX.

Part-y Time: How This Book Is Organized
We wrote this book to a carefully plotted, precise, unvarying plan, with the
predictable and predicted result: the book you’re holding in your hands now.
And the CD-ROM? Same thing.

Wait a second. Isn’t it true that the Web is changing every day, that Web sites
appear and disappear like so many jacks-in-the-box — or whack-a-moles, if
that’s a more familiar example to you — and that Web companies can pop
into and out of existence in a few weeks? So, what was that about a plan?
Well, okay, we did change things a little along the way. Maybe a lot. But we did
have a plan behind the book, even if it was finalized in a conference call at
5:00 this morning. The following sections explain the parts that make up the book.
Part I: Create a Web Page Today
You probably want to dive right into becoming a Web publisher. So we start
the book with some ideas about what to do in your Web site, and then give
some basics of HTML, the underlying language of Web pages, and specific
instructions on how to get your first, simple Web page up. You can start with
Yahoo! Geocities, a free service accessible to everyone, or built-in AOL or
CompuServe features, if you use one of those as your ISP.
Part II: Building Pages
The free, easy-to-use services in Part I are great for your first efforts as a Web
publisher. But soon you’ll want to use some “real” tools for managing and
editing your Web pages. You’ll also want to make your page richer with formatted
text and links. You may even want to add META tags to allow someone
using a search engine to easily find your pages. We tell you how to do all
that and more in this part.
Part III: Better, Stronger, Faster Pages
Huge books have been written about Web graphics. We know — one of the
authors co-authored one of them, Creating Web Graphics For Dummies by Bud
Smith and Peter Frazier (Wiley). In this part, we show you the high points of
how to create Web-friendly graphics and how to place graphics in your Web
page. Then we show you how to publish your customized Web page where
everyone can get to it.
Part IV: Getting Interactive
Most Web pages just sit there. But the fun ones interact with the user. We
show you how to add animation, multimedia, Web logs, and more interactivity
to your Web page. And we show you how to expand your “simple” Web
page, which by this point may be quite large, into a multi-page Web site. Have fun!
Part V: The Part of Tens
A Top Ten list is a great way to make complex information fun and easy
to remember. Our Top Ten lists show you key DO’s and DON’Ts of Web publishing.
Part VI: Appendixes
Appendixes in books are usually like appendixes in people: funny little things
that get taken out of the patient in a hurry if they act up. But for this book, we
pack in great information that can really help you. In Appendix A, a complete
glossary defines Web publishing terms that may be confusing to you. In other
appendixes, you see information about Internet service providers and Web
page developer resources, including a guide to the CD-ROM that comes with this book.


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Table of Contents
Introduction...........
About This Book .......
Foolish Assumptions ......
CD(-ROM) for Me, See? .......
Conventions Used in This Book .....
Part-y Time: How This Book Is Organized ......
Part I: Create a Web Page Today ............
Part II: Building Pages ....................
Part III: Better, Stronger, Faster Pages ......
Part IV: Getting Interactive ...................
Part V: The Part of Tens ..................
Part VI: Appendixes ...................
Icons Used in This Book .......
Part I: Create a Web Page Today ....................................7
Chapter 1:Web Page Publishing Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Web Basics 101 .................................................................................................9
Understanding how the Web works .....................................................9
Getting up URLy ....................................................................................11
The For Dummies Way to Web Publishing ..................................................12
Making simple things simple ...............................................................13
Making difficult things possible ..........................................................14
Types of Web Sites .........................................................................................14
Personal sites ........................................................................................15
Topical sites ..........................................................................................17
Business sites ........................................................................................18
Entertainment sites ..............................................................................20
Web Page Guidelines ......................................................................................21
Asking “Why am I doing this?” ............................................................21
Don’t spend too much time on design ...............................................22
Putting the good stuff first ..................................................................24
Thinking twice about download times ...............................................25
Knowing your audience .......................................................................25
Using text bites .....................................................................................26
Looking at sites you like ......................................................................26
Planning for ongoing improvements ..................................................27
Deciding how you define success .......................................................27
Chapter 2: Going Worldwide with GeoCities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Starting with a GeoCities Web Page .............................................................30
Checking out Yahoo! GeoCities ...........................................................31
Following the city ordinances .............................................................32
Planning Before You Begin ............................................................................34
Getting Registered ..........................................................................................35
Begin Building Your Web Site ........................................................................38
We’re Off to See the Wizard ...........................................................................40
The Steps to Success .....................................................................................42
Chapter 3:Web Publishing with AOL and Other ISPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
The Best Internet Service Provider ..............................................................46
The Best Web Publishing Support ...............................................................51
Getting Your Web Page Up with AOL or CompuServe ...............................53
Looking into What AOL Offers ......................................................................54
Planning Before You Start ..............................................................................54
Getting a Start with 1-2-3 Publish .................................................................55
Publishing Your First Home Page .................................................................58
Chapter 4: Introduction to HTML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Get Ready: A Refreshingly Brief Description of HTML ..............................64
Viewing HTML documents ..................................................................65
Creating HTML documents ..................................................................68
Previewing HTML documents .............................................................69
Get Set: HTML Horse Sense ...........................................................................70
Basic HTML rules ..................................................................................70
Ten key HTML tags plus one ...............................................................73
Go: Creating a Web Page with HTML ...........................................................74
Creating a blank file for your HTML ...................................................75
Head users your way to win ................................................................76
Getting a heading and some body ......................................................78
Adding a little list ..................................................................................79
Looking back (and forward) in anchor ..............................................81
Browsing your own Weblet ..................................................................86
Looking to the next HTML steps .........................................................88
Part II: Building Pages ................................................89
Chapter 5: Choosing Your Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Choosing Between WYSIWYG and Plain Text .............................................92
Pluses and minuses of text editors ....................................................92
Pluses and minuses of Netscape Composer .....................................93
Working with Netscape Composer ...............................................................96
Where Netscape 7.1 runs .....................................................................97
Getting Netscape Composer ...............................................................99
Using Netscape Composer ................................................................104
Using a Text Editor .......................................................................................106
Chapter 6: Creating Your Home Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
What to Put in a Home Page ........................................................................109
Me and my interests ...........................................................................110
Me and my family ...............................................................................111
Me and my work .................................................................................113
Starting Your Page ........................................................................................115
Creating your initial page using HTML ............................................115
Creating your initial page using a Web editor .................................118
I Never META Tag I Didn’t Like ...................................................................123
Adding META tags with HTML ..........................................................124
Adding META tags with Composer ...................................................125
Chapter 7: Filling In Your Home Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Writing for the Web ......................................................................................127
Web realities ........................................................................................127
Web style .............................................................................................129
Have fun ...............................................................................................130
Formatting Web Text ....................................................................................131
Using HTML Lists .........................................................................................134
Entering Text in HTML .................................................................................136
Entering and formatting text .............................................................137
Making a list ........................................................................................138
Looking at the Web page ....................................................................138
Entering Text in Netscape Composer ........................................................140
Entering and formatting text .............................................................140
Making a list ........................................................................................141
Looking at the HTML ..........................................................................142
Chapter 8: Adding Links to Your Web Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Linking Basics ...............................................................................................146
How links work ....................................................................................146
Links and URLs ...................................................................................147
Avoiding mistakes ...............................................................................151
Linking to a Web Page ..................................................................................153
Adding Web page links in HTML .......................................................153
Adding Web page links in Composer ................................................154
Creating a Mailto Link ..................................................................................155
Creating a mailto link in HTML .........................................................157
Creating a mailto link in Composer ..................................................158
Part III: Better, Stronger, Faster Pages .......................159
Chapter 9: Creating and Adding Web-Ready Graphics . . . . . .  . .161
Using Graphics in Your Web Site ................................................................162
Using GIF and JPEG graphics formats ..............................................162
Using Web-safe colors ........................................................................165
Obtaining and creating graphics ......................................................166
Dealing with Graphics ..................................................................................168
Speeding up slow pages .....................................................................169
Avoiding three big mistakes ..............................................................170
Using Graphics in HTML ..............................................................................172
Use the <IMG> tag for inline graphics ..............................................173
Add an A for anchor to create a graphical link ...............................173
Experimenting with Advanced GIFfery ......................................................175
Transparent GIFs ................................................................................177
Animated GIFs .....................................................................................178
Clickable image maps .........................................................................178
Chapter 10: Placing Graphics Right (And Left) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Adjusting Graphic Size .................................................................................179
Flowing Text around Graphics ....................................................................181
Putting a Border around a Graphic ............................................................183
Placing a Graphic in Netscape Composer .................................................183
Placing a Graphic in HTML ..........................................................................185
Chapter 11: Designing a Good-Looking Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Three Key Principles of Design ...................................................................190
Achieving simplicity ...........................................................................190
Producing predictability ....................................................................192
Creating consistency ..........................................................................194
Design Mistakes to Avoid ............................................................................194
Slow-loading pages .............................................................................194
Ugly color combinations ....................................................................195
Small text (And large text, too) .........................................................196
Breaking the Rules Safely ............................................................................197
Using Tables and Frames .............................................................................199
Creating simple tables .......................................................................199
Using tables for layout purposes ......................................................201
Friends don’t let friends do frames ..................................................202
Chapter 12: Publishing Your Web Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Getting Web Server Space ...........................................................................206
Web hosting service features ............................................................207
Options for Web server space ..........................................................209
Hiring help ...........................................................................................212
Transferring Your Files ................................................................................214
Arranging your files before transfer .................................................214
Transferring your files with FTP .......................................................215
Using an online service file transfer .................................................217
Putting Your Site to Work ............................................................................217
Testing your site .................................................................................218
Getting feedback on your site ...........................................................218
Part IV: Getting Interactive ........................................219
Chapter 13: Adding Animation and Multimedia . . . . . . . . . .221
Understanding Multimedia Pitfalls .............................................................221
Animating Your GIFs .....................................................................................223
Finding animated GIFs ........................................................................224
Adding animated GIFs to your Web page ........................................226
Creating an animated GIF ..................................................................227
The M- (for Multimedia) Files .....................................................................229
Adding a QuickTime Video File ..................................................................231
Adding an MP3 Audio File ...........................................................................233
Chapter 14: Adding More Interactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
Interactivity Made Easy ...............................................................................236
Using site counters .............................................................................237
Adding guestbooks .............................................................................238
Incorporating forms and CGIs ...........................................................239
Programming Your Pages ............................................................................240
JavaScript ............................................................................................241
ActiveX .................................................................................................241
Database interactivity ........................................................................242
Going beyond HTML ....................................................................................242
Style sheets — Cascading onto the Web .........................................242
HTML gets Dynamic ...........................................................................243
XML x-es out HTML ............................................................................243
The Web enters the twenty-first century .........................................244
Chapter 15: Creating a Full Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
Creating Your Web Pages .............................................................................245
Getting your pages right ....................................................................246
Planning versus pushing ahead ........................................................247
Planning your Web site ......................................................................249
Creating the content ...........................................................................251
Publishing your Web site ...................................................................252
Stumbling blocks on the Web ............................................................253
Creating Navigation ......................................................................................255
Arranging your pages .........................................................................255
Getting the addresses right ...............................................................256
Creating a navigation bar ..................................................................258
Getting the Word Out ...................................................................................259
Publicize your site ..............................................................................259
Count your blessings — and your users .........................................262
Keep people coming to your site ......................................................262
Chapter 16: Becoming a Wizard with Blogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
The Wonderful World of Blogs ....................................................................266
Finding blogs to read ..........................................................................266
Finding software for blogging ...........................................................267
Using Google’s Blogger.com ........................................................................268
Setting up your blog ...........................................................................269
Adding content to your blog .............................................................274
Part V: The Part of Tens .............................................279
Chapter 17: Ten Web Publishing DO’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281
DO Think About Your Target Audience .....................................................281
DO Use Good Sites as Models .....................................................................282
DO Get Permission for Content ..................................................................282
DO Use Links to Outside Sites ....................................................................283
DO Use Graphics and Multimedia ..............................................................283
DO Think Before You Create .......................................................................283
DO Ask for Feedback ....................................................................................284
DO Test Your Pages ......................................................................................284
DO Publicize Your Site .................................................................................285
DO Update Your Site ....................................................................................285
Chapter 18: Ten Web Publishing DON’Ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
DON’T Limit Your Audience ........................................................................287
DON’T Break Netiquette Rules ...................................................................288
DON’T “Borrow” Content without Asking .................................................288
DON’T Abuse Graphics and Multimedia ...................................................289
DON’T Forget ALT Text and Text Versions of Menus ...............................289
DON’T Forget the Basics .............................................................................290
DON’T Start by Setting Up Your Own Web Server ...................................290
DON’T Make Your Site Hard to Navigate ...................................................290
DON’T Forget the “World” in World Wide Web .........................................291
DON’T Be Afraid to Find Out More .............................................................291
Part VI: Appendixes ...................................................293
Appendix A:Web Words Worth Knowing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
Appendix B: Internet Service Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
Appendix C: A Quick Guide to HTML Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305
Versions of HTML .........................................................................................306
How to Use This Appendix ..........................................................................307
Reading the Tables .......................................................................................307
Widely Supported Tags ................................................................................308
Other Widely Used Tags ..............................................................................312
Less Frequently Used Tags ..........................................................................317
Appendix D: Using Resource.htm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
General Web Developer Resources ............................................................325
Microsoft Windows Web Resources ...........................................................326
Microsoft Windows Software ......................................................................327
Macintosh Web Resources ..........................................................................327
Macintosh Web Software .............................................................................328
Web Logs .......................................................................................................328
Cascading Style Sheets ................................................................................329
RSS, Atom, and Content Syndication .........................................................329
Perl .................................................................................................................330
Java ................................................................................................................331
JavaScript ......................................................................................................331
XML ................................................................................................................332
ActiveX ...........................................................................................................332
Microsoft .NET ..............................................................................................333
USENET Newsgroups ...................................................................................333
Appendix E: About the CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335
System Requirements ..................................................................................335
Using the CD with Microsoft Windows ......................................................336
Using the CD with Mac OS ...........................................................................336
What You’ll Find on the CD .........................................................................337
A Quick Overview .........................................................................................337
Resources ............................................................................................338
HTML Editors ......................................................................................338
Graphical tools ....................................................................................340
Web page utilities ...............................................................................341
Other Internet Tools ...........................................................................342
Troubleshooting ...........................................................................................343
Index........................................................................345
Wiley Publishing, Inc. End-User License Agreement.....363
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