Hack Proofing: Your Web Applications, Syngress

Hack Proofing: Your Web Applications, Syngress

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The Only Way to Stop a Hacker Is to Think Like One

Step-by-Step Instructions for Developing Secure Web ApplicationsHundreds of Tools & Traps and Damage & Defense Sidebarsand Security Alerts!Complete Coverage of How to Hack Your Own Site

Jeff ForristalJulie Traxler Technical Editor

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Hack Proofing: Your Web Applications

Hack Proofing Your Web Applications encourages you to address security
issues from the earliest stages of application development onward. Our
premise is that there is too much at stake to wait for an audit (or worse,
a customer) to find flaws or errors in your code.

While we acknowledge
that there is no way to completely eliminate the risk of a malicious attack
on your code, we firmly believe that by following the instructions and
recommendations in this book, you will dramatically reduce both the
likelihood of an attack as well as mitigate the extent of the damage should an attack occur

Foreword xxv
Chapter 1 Hacking Methodology 
Introduction 2
Understanding the Terms 3
A Brief History of Hacking 4
Phone System Hacking 5
Computer Hacking 6
What Motivates a Hacker? 9
Ethical Hacking versus Malicious Hacking 10
Working with Security Professionals 11
Associated Risks with Hiring a Security
Professional 12
Understanding Current Attack Types 13
DoS/DDoS 13
Virus Hacking 16
Trojan Horses 18
Worms 21
Rogue Applets 22
Stealing 23
Credit Card Theft 24
Theft of Identity 26
Information Piracy 27
Recognizing Web Application Security Threats 28
Hidden Manipulation 29
Parameter Tampering 29
Cross-Site Scripting 29
Buffer Overflow 30
Cookie Poisoning 31
Preventing Break-Ins by Thinking Like a Hacker 31
Summary 35
Solutions Fast Track 36
Frequently Asked Questions 40
Chapter 2 How to Avoid Becoming a “Code Grinder” 
Introduction 44
What Is a Code Grinder? 45
Following the Rules 49
Thinking Creatively When Coding 50
Allowing for Thought 53
Modular Programming Done Correctly 53
Security from the Perspective of a Code Grinder 56
Coding in a Vacuum 58
Building Functional and Secure Web Applications 59
But My Code Is Functional! 66
There Is More to an Application than
Functionality 68
Let’s Make It Secure and Functional 71
Summary 76
Solutions Fast Track 77
Frequently Asked Questions 78
Chapter 3 Understanding the Risks Associated with Mobile Code
Introduction 82
Recognizing the Impact of Mobile Code Attacks 83
Browser Attacks 83
Mail Client Attacks 84
Malicious Scripts or Macros 85
Identifying Common Forms of Mobile Code 86
Macro Languages:Visual Basic for
Applications (VBA) 87
Security Problems with VBA 89
Protecting against VBA Viruses 92
JavaScript 93
JavaScript Security Overview 94
Security Problems 95
Exploiting Plug-In Commands 96
Web-Based E-Mail Attacks 96
Social Engineering 97
Lowering JavaScript Security Risks 97
VBScript 98
VBScript Security Overview 98
VBScript Security Problems 99
VBScript Security Precautions 101
Java Applets 101
Granting Additional Access to Applets 102
Security Problems with Java 103
Java Security Precautions 104
ActiveX Controls 105
ActiveX Security Overview 105
Security Problems with ActiveX 107
E-Mail Attachments and Downloaded
Executables 110
Back Orifice 2000 Trojan 111
Protecting Your System from Mobile Code
Attacks 115
Security Applications 115
ActiveX Manager 115
Back Orifice Detectors 115
Firewall Software 119
Web-Based Tools 119
Identifying Bad ActiveX Controls 119
Client Security Updates 120
Summary 121
Solutions Fast Track 122
Frequently Asked Questions 123
Chapter 4 Vulnerable CGI Scripts
Introduction 126
What Is a CGI Script, and What Does It Do? 127
Typical Uses of CGI Scripts 129
When Should You Use CGI? 135
CGI Script Hosting Issues 136
Break-Ins Resulting from Weak CGI Scripts 137
How to Write “Tighter” CGI Scripts 139
Searchable Index Commands 143
CGI Wrappers 144
Whisker 145
Languages for Writing CGI Scripts 149
Unix Shell 150
Perl 151
C/C++ 151
Visual Basic 152
Advantages of Using CGI Scripts 153
Rules for Writing Secure CGI Scripts 153
Storing CGI Scripts 157
Summary 161
Solutions Fast Track 161
Frequently Asked Questions 165
Chapter 5 Hacking Techniques and Tools 
Introduction 168
A Hacker’s Goals 169
Minimize the Warning Signs 170
Maximize the Access 172
Damage, Damage,Damage 175
Turning the Tables 177
The Five Phases of Hacking 178
Creating an Attack Map 179
Building an Execution Plan 182
Establishing a Point of Entry 183
Continued and Further Access 184
The Attack 186
Social Engineering 188
Sensitive Information 188
E-Mail or Messaging Services 189
Telephones and Documents 191
Credentials 193
The Intentional “Back Door” Attack 195
Hard-Coding a Back Door Password 195
Exploiting Inherent Weaknesses in Code or
Programming Environments 198
The Tools of the Trade 199
Hex Editors 199
Debuggers 201
Disassemblers 202
Windows-Based Tools 202
Quick View 204
DOS-Based Tools 204
Summary 206
Solutions Fast Track 207
Frequently Asked Questions 211
Chapter 6 Code Auditing and Reverse Engineering 
Introduction 216
How to Efficiently Trace through a Program 216
Auditing and Reviewing Selected Programming
Languages 220
Reviewing Java 220
Reviewing Java Server Pages 221
Reviewing Active Server Pages 221
Reviewing Server Side Includes 222
Reviewing Python 222
Reviewing Tool Command Language 222
Reviewing Practical Extraction and
Reporting Language 222
Reviewing PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor 223
Reviewing C/C++ 223
Reviewing ColdFusion 224
Looking for Vulnerabilities 224
Getting the Data from the User 225
Looking for Buffer Overflows 226
The str* Family of Functions 227
The strn* Family of Functions 228
The *scanf Family of Functions 228
Other Functions Vulnerable to Buffer
Overflows 229
Checking the Output Given to the User 230
Format String Vulnerabilities 230
Cross-Site Scripting 232
Information Disclosure 234
Checking for File System Access/Interaction 235
Checking External Program and Code
Execution 238
Calling External Programs 239
Dynamic Code Execution 240
External Objects/Libraries 241
Checking Structured Query Language
(SQL)/Database Queries 242
Checking Networking and
Communication Streams 245
Pulling It All Together 247
Summary 248
Solutions Fast Track 248
Frequently Asked Questions 250
Chapter 7 Securing Your Java Code 
Introduction 254
Overview of the Java Security Architecture 255
The Java Security Model 257
The Sandbox 259
Security and Java Applets 260
How Java Handles Security 264
Class Loaders 265
The Applet Class Loader 266
Adding Security to a Custom
Class Loader 266
Byte-Code Verifier 269
Java Protected Domains 275
Java Security Manager 276
Policy Files 277
The SecurityManager Class 284
Potential Weaknesses in Java 285
DoS Attack/Degradation of Service Attacks 285
Third-Party Trojan Horse Attacks 289
Coding Functional but Secure Java Applets 290
Message Digests 291
Digital Signatures 295
Generating a Key Pair 298
Obtaining and Verifying a Signature 301
Authentication 303
X.509 Certificate Format 305
Obtaining Digital Certificates 305
Protecting Security with JAR Signing 311
Encryption 315
Cryptix Installation Instructions 319
Sun Microsystems Recommendations
for Java Security 322
Privileged Code Guidelines 323
Java Code Guidelines 324
C Code Guidelines 325
Summary 326
Solutions Fast Track 327
Frequently Asked Questions 329
Chapter 8 Securing XML
Introduction 332
Defining XML 332
Logical Structure 334
Elements 335
Attributes 336
Well-Formed Documents 337
Valid Document 337
XML and XSL/DTD Documents 339
XSL Use of Templates 339
XSL Use of Patterns 340
DTD 344
Schemas 345
Creating Web Applications Using XML 347
The Risks Associated with Using XML 352
Confidentiality Concerns 353
Securing XML 354
XML Encryption 355
XML Digital Signatures 362
Summary 366
Solutions Fast Track 367
Frequently Asked Questions 369
Chapter 9 Building Safe ActiveX Internet Controls 
Introduction 372
Dangers Associated with Using ActiveX 373
Avoiding Common ActiveX Vulnerabilities 375
Lessening the Impact of ActiveX
Vulnerabilities 378
Protection at the Network Level 379
Protection at the Client Level 379
Methodology for Writing Safe ActiveX Controls 382
Object Safety Settings 383
Securing ActiveX Controls 385
Control Signing 385
Using Microsoft Authenticode 387
Control Marking 389
Using Safety Settings 389
Using IObjectSafety 390
Marking the Control in the Windows
Registry 395
Summary 397
Solutions Fast Track 398
Frequently Asked Questions 400
Chapter 10 Securing ColdFusion 
Introduction 404
How Does ColdFusion Work? 404
Utilizing the Benefit of Rapid Development 406
Understanding ColdFusion Markup
Language 408
Scalable Deployment 410
Open Integration 410
Preserving ColdFusion Security 411
Secure Development 414
Queries 419
Uploaded Files 425
Denial of Service 425
Turning Off Tags 426
Secure Deployment 427
ColdFusion Application Processing 428
Checking for Existence of Data 428
Checking Data Types 430
Data Evaluation 433
Risks Associated with Using ColdFusion 435
Using Error Handling Programs 438
Monitor.cfm Example 441
Using Per-Session Tracking 444
Summary 447
Solutions Fast Track 448
Frequently Asked Questions 450
Chapter 11 Developing Security-Enabled Applications 
Introduction 452
The Benefits of Using Security-Enabled
Applications 453
Types of Security Used in Applications 454
Digital Signatures 455
Pretty Good Privacy 456
Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension 459
Secure Sockets Layer 460
Server Authentication 462
Client Authentication 462
Digital Certificates 466
Reviewing the Basics of PKI 468
Certificate Services 471
iPlanet by Sun/Netscape 472
Using PKI to Secure Web Applications 472
Implementing PKI in Your Web Infrastructure 473
Microsoft Certificate Services 474
Netscape Certificate Server 478
Installation of Netscape Certificate Server 478
Administering Netscape CMS 483
PKI for Apache Server 486
PKI and Secure Software Toolkits 487
Testing Your Security Implementation 488
Summary 492
Solutions Fast Track 493
Frequently Asked Questions 497
Chapter 12 Cradle to Grave: Working with a Security Plan
Introduction 500
Examining Your Code 501
Code Reviews 502
Peer-to-Peer Code Reviews 504
Being Aware of Code Vulnerabilities 508
Testing,Testing,Testing 510
Using Common Sense When Coding 512
Planning 513
Coding Standards 514
Header Comments 514
Variable Declaration Comments 515
The Tools 516
Rule-Based Analyzers 516
Debugging and Error Handling 517
Version Control and Source Code
Tracking 518
Creating a Security Plan 520
Security Planning at the Network Level 522
Security Planning at the Application Level 523
Security Planning at the Desktop Level 523
Web Application Security Process 524
Summary 527
Solutions Fast Track 528
Frequently Asked Questions 530
Appendix Hack Proofing Your Web
Applications Fast Track 533
Index 561
You are probably familiar with the attacks of February 2000 on eBay, Yahoo,Amazon, as well as other major e-commerce and non–e-commerce Web sites.Those attacks were all Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, and all occurred at the server level.Those same attacks moved hacking to center stage in the IT community and in the press. With that spotlight comes an increased awareness by information security specialists, project managers, and other IT professionals. More and more companies are looking to tighten up security. As a result, hackers have become more creative and more talented, raising the bar on security from not only a network administration standpoint, but also from an applications development standpoint.


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Product details
 File Size
  8,813 KB
  625 p
 File Type
  PDF format
  2001 by Syngress Publishing, Inc 

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