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Hack Proofing: Your Network 2nd Edition, Syngress

Hack Proofing: Your Network 2nd Edition, Syngress

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-Second Edition-

The Only Way to Stop a Hacker is to Think Like One

David R. Mirza Ahmad Ido Dubrawsky Hal Flynn Joseph “Kingpin” Grand Robert Graham Norris L. Johnson, Jr.K2 Dan “Effugas” Kaminsky F. William LynchSteve W. Manzuik Ryan Permeh Ken Pfeil Rain Forest Puppy Ryan Russell Technical Editor

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Hack Proofing: Your Network 2nd Edition

This book is intended to teach skills that will be useful for breaking into computers.
If that statement shocks you, then you probably aren’t familiar with the
legitimate reasons for hacking.
These reasons can be security testing, consumer
advocacy and civil rights, military interests, and “hacktivist” politics; however, in
this book, we’re just going to cover the techniques rather than the reasons.

Contents

Foreword v 1.5 xxix
Foreword v 1.0 xxxiii
Chapter 1 How To Hack
Introduction 2
What We Mean by “Hack” 2
Why Hack? 3
Knowing What To Expect in the Rest of This Book 4
Understanding the Current Legal Climate 6
Summary 8
Frequently Asked Questions 8
Chapter 2 The Laws of Security 
Introduction 12
Knowing the Laws of Security 12
Client-Side Security Doesn’t Work 14
You Cannot Securely Exchange Encryption
Keys without a Shared Piece of Information 15
Malicious Code Cannot Be
100 Percent Protected against 18
Any Malicious Code Can Be Completely
Morphed to Bypass Signature Detection 20
Firewalls Cannot Protect
You 100 Percent from Attack 22
Social Engineering 24
Attacking Exposed Servers 24
Attacking the Firewall Directly 26
Client-Side Holes 26
Any IDS Can Be Evaded 27
Secret Cryptographic Algorithms Are Not Secure 28
If a Key Is Not Required,You Do Not Have
Encryption—You Have Encoding 30
Passwords Cannot Be Securely Stored on
the Client Unless There Is Another Password
to Protect Them 32
In Order for a System to Begin to Be
Considered Secure, It Must Undergo
an Independent Security Audit 35
Security through Obscurity Does Not Work 37
Summary 39
Solutions Fast Track 39
Frequently Asked Questions 42
Chapter 3 Classes of Attack 
Introduction 46
Identifying and Understanding the Classes
of Attack 46
Denial of Service 47
Local Vector Denial of Service 47
Network Vector Denial of Service 50
Information Leakage 56
Service Information Leakage 56
Protocol Information Leakage 58
Leaky by Design 60
Leaky Web Servers 60
A Hypothetical Scenario 61
Why Be Concerned with Information
Leakage? 61
Regular File Access 62
Permissions 62
Symbolic Link Attacks 63
Misinformation 65
Standard Intrusion Procedure 67
Special File/Database Access 69
Attacks against Special Files 69
Attacks against Databases 70
Remote Arbitrary Code Execution 72
The Attack 73
Code Execution Limitations 74
Elevation of Privileges 74
Remote Privilege Elevation 75
Identifying Methods of Testing for Vulnerabilities 77
Proof of Concept 77
Exploit Code 78
Automated Security Tools 79
Versioning 79
Standard Research Techniques 80
Whois 81
Domain Name System 86
Nmap 89
Web Indexing 90
Summary 93
Solutions Fast Track 95
Frequently Asked Questions 96
Chapter 4 Methodology 
Introduction 100
Understanding Vulnerability Research
Methodologies 100
Source Code Research 101
Searching For Error-Prone Functions 101
Line-By-Line Review 102
Discovery Through Difference 102
Binary Research 104
Tracing Binaries 104
Debuggers 105
Guideline-Based Auditing 105
Sniffers 105
The Importance of Source Code Reviews 106
Searching Error-Prone Functions 106
Buffer Overflows 106
Input Validation Bugs 110
Race Conditions 112
Reverse Engineering Techniques 113
Disassemblers, Decompilers, and Debuggers 120
Black Box Testing 125
Chips 126
Summary 128
Solutions Fast Track 129
Frequently Asked Questions 130
Chapter 5 Diffing 
Introduction 132
What Is Diffing? 132
Why Diff? 135
Looking to the Source Code 136
Going for the Gold: A Gaming Example 139
Exploring Diff Tools 143
Using File-Comparison Tools 143
Using the fc Tool 143
Using the diff Command 145
Working with Hex Editors 146
Hackman 147
[N] Curses Hexedit 148
Hex Workshop 149
Utilizing File System Monitoring Tools 150
Doing It The Hard Way: Manual
Comparison 150
Comparing File Attributes 151
Using the Archive Attribute 153
Examining Checksums and Hashes 154
Finding Other Tools 155
Troubleshooting 157
Problems with Checksums and Hashes 157
Problems with Compression and Encryption 159
Summary 160
Solutions Fast Track 161
Frequently Asked Questions 162
Chapter 6 Cryptography 
Introduction 166
Understanding Cryptography Concepts 166
History 167
Encryption Key Types 167
Learning about Standard Cryptographic
Algorithms 169
Understanding Symmetric Algorithms 170
DES 170
AES (Rijndael) 172
IDEA 173
Understanding Asymmetric Algorithms 174
Diffie-Hellman 174
RSA 176
Understanding Brute Force 177
Brute Force Basics 177
Using Brute Force to Obtain Passwords 178
L0phtcrack 180
Crack 181
John the Ripper 182
Knowing When Real Algorithms
Are Being Used Improperly 183
Bad Key Exchanges 183
Hashing Pieces Separately 184
Using a Short Password to Generate
a Long Key 185
Improperly Stored Private or Secret Keys 186
Understanding Amateur Cryptography Attempts 188
Classifying the Ciphertext 189
Frequency Analysis 189
Ciphertext Relative Length Analysis 190
Similar Plaintext Analysis 190
Monoalphabetic Ciphers 191
Other Ways to Hide Information 191
XOR 191
UUEncode 195
Base64 195
Compression 197
Summary 199
Solutions Fast Track 200
Frequently Asked Questions 202
Chapter 7 Unexpected Input 
Introduction 206
Understanding Why Unexpected Data
Is Dangerous 206
Finding Situations Involving Unexpected Data 208
Local Applications and Utilities 208
HTTP/HTML 208
Unexpected Data in SQL Queries 211
Application Authentication 215
Disguising the Obvious 220
Using Techniques to Find and Eliminate
Vulnerabilities 221
Black-Box Testing 222
Discovering Network and System
Problems 225
Use the Source 226
Untaint Data by Filtering It 227
Escaping Characters Is Not Always Enough 227
Perl 228
Cold Fusion/Cold Fusion
Markup Language (CFML) 229
ASP 229
PHP 230
Protecting Your SQL Queries 231
Silently Removing versus Alerting on
Bad Data 232
Invalid Input Function 232
Token Substitution 233
Utilizing the Available Safety Features
in Your Programming Language 233
Perl 233
PHP 235
ColdFusion/ColdFusion Markup Language 235
ASP 236
MySQL 237
Using Tools to Handle Unexpected Data 237
Web Sleuth 237
CGIAudit 237
RATS 237
Flawfinder 238
Retina 238
Hailstorm 238
Pudding 238
Summary 239
Solutions Fast Track 239
Frequently Asked Questions 242
Chapter 8 Buffer Overflow 
Introduction 244
Understanding the Stack 244
The Code 246
Disassembly 247
The Stack Dump 248
Oddities and the Stack 249
Understanding the Stack Frame 249
Introduction to the Stack Frame 250
Passing Arguments to a Function:
A Sample Program 250
The Disassembly 251
The Stack Dumps 254
Stack Frames and Calling Syntaxes 256
Learning about Buffer Overflows 257
A Simple Uncontrolled Overflow:
A Sample Program 259
The Disassembly 260
The Stack Dumps 262
Creating Your First Overflow 263
Creating a Program with an Exploitable
Overflow 264
Writing the Overflowable Code 264
Disassembling the Overflowable Code 265
Stack Dump after the Overflow 267
Performing the Exploit 267
General Exploit Concepts 268
Buffer Injection Techniques 268
Methods to Execute Payload 269
Designing Payload 281
Performing the Exploit on Linux 282
Performing the Exploit on Windows NT 293
Learning Advanced Overflow Techniques 303
Input Filtering 303
Incomplete Overflows and Data
Corruption 304
Stack Based Function Pointer Overwrite 306
Heap Overflows 306
Corrupting a Function Pointer 307
Trespassing the Heap 307
Advanced Payload Design 310
Using What You Already Have 310
Dynamic Loading New Libraries 311
Eggshell Payloads 313
Summary 314
Solutions Fast Track 314
Frequently Asked Questions 317
Chapter 9 Format Strings 
Introduction 320
Understanding Format String Vulnerabilities 322
Why and Where Do Format
String Vulnerabilities Exist? 326
How Can They Be Fixed? 327
How Format String Vulnerabilities
Are Exploited 328
Denial of Service 329
Reading Memory 329
Writing to Memory 330
How Format String Exploits Work 332
Constructing Values 333
What to Overwrite 335
Overwriting Return Addresses 335
Overwriting Global Offset Table
Entries and Other Function Pointers 335
Examining a Vulnerable Program 336
Testing with a Random Format String 340
Writing a Format String Exploit 344
Summary 356
Solutions Fast Track 356
Frequently Asked Questions 358
Chapter 10 Sniffing 
Introduction 362
What Is Sniffing? 362
How Does It Work? 362
What to Sniff? 363
Obtaining Authentication Information 363
Monitoring Telnet (Port 23) 364
Monitoring FTP (Port 21) 364
Monitoring POP (Port 110) 365
Monitoring IMAP (Port 143) 365
Monitoring NNTP (Port 119) 366
Monitoring rexec (Port 512) 366
Monitoring rlogin (Port 513) 367
Monitoring X11 (Port 6000+) 368
Monitoring NFS File Handles 368
Capturing Windows NT Authentication
Information 369
Capturing Other Network Traffic 370
Monitoring SMTP (Port 25) 370
Monitoring HTTP (Port 80) 370
Popular Sniffing Software 371
Ethereal 371
Network Associates Sniffer Pro 372
NT Network Monitor 374
WildPackets 375
TCPDump 376
dsniff 377
Ettercap 380
Esniff.c 380
Sniffit 381
Carnivore 382
Additional Resources 385
Advanced Sniffing Techniques 385
Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) Attacks 385
Cracking 386
Switch Tricks 386
ARP Spoofing 386
MAC Flooding 387
Routing Games 388
Exploring Operating System APIs 388
Linux 388
BSD 392
libpcap 392
Windows 395
Taking Protective Measures 395
Providing Encryption 395
Secure Shell (SSH) 396
Secure Sockets Layers (SSL) 397
PGP and S/MIME 397
Switching 398
Employing Detection Techniques 398
Local Detection 398
Network Detection 399
DNS Lookups 399
Latency 399
Driver Bugs 400
AntiSniff 400
Network Monitor 400
Summary 401
Solutions Fast Track 402
Frequently Asked Questions 404
Chapter 11 Session Hijacking 
Introduction 408
Understanding Session Hijacking 408
TCP Session Hijacking 410
TCP Session Hijacking with Packet
Blocking 411
Route Table Modification 411
ARP Attacks 414
UDP Hijacking 415
Examining the Available Tools 416
Juggernaut 416
Hunt 420
Ettercap 425
SMBRelay 430
Storm Watchers 430
ACK Storms 431
Playing MITM for Encrypted Communications 433
Man-in-the-Middle Attacks 434
Dsniff 435
Other Hijacking 436
Summary 438
Solutions Fast Track 438
Frequently Asked Questions 440
Chapter 12 Spoofing: Attacks on Trusted Identity 
Introduction 444
What It Means to Spoof 444
Spoofing Is Identity Forgery 444
Spoofing Is an Active Attack
against Identity Checking Procedures 445
Spoofing Is Possible at All
Layers of Communication 445
Spoofing Is Always Intentional 446
Spoofing May Be Blind or Informed,
but Usually Involves Only Partial
Credentials 447
Spoofing Is Not the Same Thing as Betrayal 448
Spoofing Is Not Necessarily Malicious 448
Spoofing Is Nothing New 449
Background Theory 449
The Importance of Identity 450
The Evolution of Trust 451
Asymmetric Signatures between Human
Beings 451
Establishing Identity within Computer
Networks 453
Return to Sender 454
In the Beginning,There Was…
a Transmission 455
Capability Challenges 457
Ability to Transmit:“Can It Talk
to Me?” 457
Ability to Respond:“Can It Respond
to Me?” 459
Ability to Encode:“Can It Speak My
Language?” 463
Ability to Prove a Shared Secret:
“Does It Share a Secret with Me?” 465
Ability to Prove a Private Keypair:
“Can I Recognize Your Voice?” 467
Ability to Prove an Identity Keypair:
“Is Its Identity Independently
Represented in My Keypair?” 468
Configuration Methodologies:
Building a Trusted Capability Index 470
Local Configurations vs. Central
Configurations 470
Desktop Spoofs 471
The Plague of Auto-Updating Applications 471
Impacts of Spoofs 473
Subtle Spoofs and Economic Sabotage 474
Flattery Will Get You Nowhere 474
Subtlety Will Get You Everywhere 476
Selective Failure for Selecting Recovery 476
Bait and Switch: Spoofing the Presence
of SSL Itself 478
Down and Dirty: Engineering Spoofing Systems 486
Spitting into the Wind: Building
a Skeleton Router in Userspace 486
Designing the Nonexistent:The
Network Card That Didn’t Exist but
Responded Anyway 487
Implementation: DoxRoute, Section
by Section 488
Bring Out the Halon: Spoofing
Connectivity Through Asymmetric
Firewalls 510
Symmetric Outgoing TCP:
A Highly Experimental Framework
for Handshake-Only TCP
Connection Brokering 511
Summary 518
Solution Fast Track 519
Frequently Asked Questions 523
Chapter 13 Tunneling 
Introduction 528
Strategic Constraints of Tunnel Design 530
Privacy:“Where Is My Traffic Going?” 532
Routability:“Where Can This Go Through?” 532
Deployability:“How Painful
Is This to Get Up and Running?” 533
Flexibility:“What Can
We Use This for,Anyway?” 534
Quality:“How Painful Will
This System Be to Maintain?” 537
Designing End-to-End Tunneling Systems 537
Drilling Tunnels Using SSH 538
Security Analysis: OpenSSH 3.02 539
Setting Up OpenSSH 541
Open Sesame: Authentication 543
Basic Access: Authentication by Password 543
Transparent Access: Authentication by
Private Key 544
Server to Client Authentication 544
Client to Server Authentication 545
Command Forwarding: Direct
Execution for Scripts and Pipes 550
Port Forwarding: Accessing Resources on
Remote Networks 556
Local Port Forwards 557
Dynamic Port Forwards 560
Internet Explorer 6: Making the Web
Safe for Work 561
Speak Freely: Instant Messaging
over SSH 564
That’s a Wrap: Encapsulating Arbitrary
Win32 Apps within the Dynamic
Forwarder 566
Summoning Virgil: Using Dante’s
Socksify to Wrap UNIX Applications 567
Remote Port Forwards 569
When in Rome:Traversing
the Recalcitrant Network 571
Crossing the Bridge: Accessing
Proxies through ProxyCommands 571
No Habla HTTP? Permuting thy Traffic 575
Show Your Badge: Restricted
Bastion Authentication 576
Bringing the Mountain: Exporting
SSHD Access 579
Echoes in a Foreign Tongue:
Cross-Connecting Mutually
Firewalled Hosts 581
Not In Denver, Not Dead: Now What? 584
Standard File Transfer over SSH 584
Incremental File Transfer over SSH 586
CD Burning over SSH 589
Acoustic Tubing: Audio
Distribution over TCP and SSH 593
Summary 598
Solutions Fast Track 600
Frequently Asked Questions 606
Chapter 14 Hardware Hacking 
Introduction 610
Understanding Hardware Hacking 610
Opening the Device: Housing
and Mechanical Attacks 611
Types of Tamper Mechanisms 613
Tamper Resistance 615
Tamper Evidence 615
Tamper Detection 615
Tamper Response 617
External Interfaces 618
Protocol Analysis 620
Electromagnetic Interference
and Electrostatic Discharge 623
Analyzing the Product Internals: Electrical
Circuit Attacks 624
Reverse-engineering the Device 624
Basic Techniques: Common Attacks 627
Device Packaging 627
Memory Retrieval 628
Timing Attacks 629
Advanced Techniques: Epoxy
Removal and IC Delidding 630
Silicon Die Analysis 631
Cryptanalysis and Obfuscation Methods 632
What Tools Do I Need? 634
Starter Kit 634
Advanced Kit 635
Example: Hacking the iButton Authentication
Token 637
Experimenting with the Device 638
Reverse-engineering the “Random”
Response 639
Example: Hacking the NetStructure 7110
E-commerce Accelerator 642
Opening the Device 642
Retrieving the Filesystem 642
Reverse-engineering the Password
Generator 646
Summary 648
Solutions Fast Track 649
Frequently Asked Questions 652
Chapter 15 Viruses, Trojan Horses, and Worms 
Introduction 656
How Do Viruses,Trojans Horses, and
Worms Differ? 656
Viruses 656
Worms 657
Macro Virus 658
Trojan Horses 659
Hoaxes 660
Anatomy of a Virus 660
Propagation 660
Payload 662
Other Tricks of the Trade 663
Dealing with Cross-platform Issues 664
Java 664
Macro Viruses 665
Recompilation 665
Shockwave Flash 665
Proof that We Need to Worry 665
The Morris Worm 666
ADMw0rm 666
Melissa and I Love You 666
Sadmind Worm 673
Code Red Worms 674
Nimda Worm 675
Creating Your Own Malware 677
New Delivery Methods 678
Faster Propagation Methods 679
Other Thoughts on Creating New Malware 679
How to Secure Against Malicious Software 680
Anti-Virus Software 681
Updates and Patches 683
Web Browser Security 683
Anti-Virus Research 683
Summary 685
Solutions Fast Track 685
Frequently Asked Questions 687
Chapter 16 IDS Evasion 
Introduction 690
Understanding How Signature-Based IDSs Work 690
Judging False Positives and Negatives 693
Alert Flooding 693
Using Packet Level Evasion 694
IP Options 696
Time-To-Live Attacks 696
IP Fragmentation 697
TCP Header 698
TCP Synchronization 699
TCB Creation 699
Stream Reassembly 700
TCB Teardown 701
Using Fragrouter and Congestant 701
Countermeasures 704
Using Application Protocol Level Evasion 705
Security as an Afterthought 705
Evading a Match 706
Alternate Data Encodings 706
Web Attack Techniques 707
Method Matching 708
Directory and File Referencing 708
Countermeasures 709
Using Code Morphing Evasion 709
Summary 713
Solutions Fast Track 714
Frequently Asked Questions 716
Chapter 17 Automated Security Review and Attack Tools 
Introduction 720
Learning about Automated Tools 720
Exploring the Commercial Tools 725
CyberCop Scanner 728
Internet Security Systems (ISS)
Internet Scanner 728
BindView’s BV-Control for Internet Security 729
eEye Retina 729
Other Products 729
Exploring the Free Tools 730
Nessus 730
Security Administrators
Integrated Network Tool (SAINT) 731
Security Administrators Research
Assistant (SARA) 732
ShadowScan 732
Nmap and NmapNT 732
Whisker 733
VLAD the Scanner 733
Other Resources 734
Using Automated Tools for Penetration Testing 734
Testing with the Commercial Tools 734
Testing the Free Tools 739
Knowing When Tools Are Not Enough 743
The New Face of Vulnerability Testing 744
Summary 745
Solutions Fast Track 745
Frequently Asked Questions 746
Chapter 18 Reporting Security Problems 
Introduction 750
Understanding Why Security
Problems Need to Be Reported 750
Full Disclosure 752
Determining When and to
Whom to Report the Problem 755
Whom to Report Security Problems to? 755
How to Report a Security Problem
to a Vendor 758
Deciding How Much Detail to Publish 759
Publishing Exploit Code 759
Problems 760
Repercussions from Vendors 760
Reporting Errors 762
Risk to the Public 762
Summary 763
Solutions Fast Track 763
Frequently Asked Questions 765
Index 767
---------------------------------
For the first edition of this book the other authors and I had one thing in common: we all had something we wish we could have done differently in our chapters.We either made a mistake, or didn’t explain something as well as we’d like, or forgot to cover something, or wish we had time to write one more bit of code. Like any project, the time eventually comes to cut the cord, and let it go.
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Product details
 Price
 File Size
  8,980 KB
 Pages
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 File Type
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 ISBN
  1-928994-70-9
 Copyright
  2002 by Syngress Publishing, Inc 
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