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Linux and Unix Security: Portable Reference, McGraw Hill

Linux and Unix Security: Portable Reference, McGraw Hill

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HackNotes: Linux and Unix Security: Portable Reference

A virtual arms cache at your fingertips. HackNotes Linux and
Unix Security Portable Reference is a valuable reference for
busy administrators and consultants who value the condensed
and practical insight to understanding the threats they face
and how to practically utilize tools to test the security
of their environments.
—Patrick Heim, Vice President Enterprise Security,
McKesson Corporation


HackNotes Linux and Unix Security Portable Reference is
a valuable practical guide to protecting Linux and Unix systems
from attack. Many books give general (and often vague)
advice, whereas this book’s style provides very precise
descriptions of attacks and how to protect against them.
—Mikhail J. Atallah, Professor of Computer Science,
Purdue University, CERIAS

A clear concise guide to security problems faced by sysadmins today.
Every sysadmin should be familiar with the material covered in
HackNotes Linux and Unix Security Portable Reference. For every
vulnerability presented, the author provides common-sense guidelines
for securing your network. Emphasis on real world examples
reinforces just how serious today’s threat is.”
—Snax, The Shmoo Group, Maintainer of AirSnort
---------------------------------

Contents
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Introduction. . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Reference Center
Common Commands . .. . . . . . RC 2
Common Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . RC 7
IP Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RC 9
Dotted Decimal Notation ..  . . . RC 9
Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RC 9
Subnet Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . RC 11
CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) .. . RC 12
Loopback . . . . . . . . . . . . . RC 12
Private Addresses . . . . . . . RC 12
Protocol Headers . . . . . . . . RC 12
Online Resources . . . . . . . . . RC 15
Hacking Tools . . . . . ... . . . . RC 15
Web Resources . . . . . ... . . . . RC 18
Mailing Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . RC 19
Conferences and Events . . .. . RC 19
Useful Netcat Commands. . .. . RC 20
ASCII Table . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . RC 22
HTTP Codes . . . .  . . . . . . . . RC 28
Important Files . . . . . . . . . .. RC 30
Part I
Hacking Techniques and Defenses
■ 1 Footprinting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Search Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Domain Registrars .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Regional Internet Registries .  . . . . . 12
DNS Reverse-Lookups . . . . . . . . . 14
Mail Exchange . . ........... . . . . . . . . 15
Zone Transfers . . ................ . . . . . 16
Traceroute . ............. . . . . . . . . . . 18
Summary . ............. . . . . . . . . . . . 19
■ 2 Scanning and Identification .. . . . . . . 21
Pinging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Ping Sweeping . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . 23
TCP Pinging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
TCP Connect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
TCP SYN/Half-Open . . . . . . .. . . 26
FIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Reverse Ident . . .  . . . . . .  . . . . . . 28
XMAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
NULL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
RPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
IP Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . 30
ACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
UDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 31
Fingerprinting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . 34
■ 3 Enumeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . 35
Enumerate Remote Services . . . . . 36
FTP (File Transfer Protocol): 21 (TCP) . .37
SSH (Secure Shell): 22 (TCP) . . . . . . . . . . 38
Telnet: 23 (TCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . 38
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol):
25 (TCP) . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
DNS (Domain Name System):
53 (TCP/UDP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Finger: 79 (TCP) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 42
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol): 80 (TCP) 43
POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3): 110 (TCP) . . . . . . 45
Portmapper: 111 (TCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
NNTP (Network News Transfer
Protocol): 119 (TCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Samba: 137 to 139 (TCP and UDP) . . . . . . . . . . . 48
IMAP2/IMAP4 (Internet Message Access
Protocol 2/4): 143 (TCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
SNMP (Simple Network Management
Protocol): 161, 162 (UDP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer
Protocol): 443 (TCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
NNTPS (Secure Network News Transfer
Protocol): 563 (TCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
IMAPS (Secure Internet Message Access
Protocol): 993 (TCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
POP3S (Secure Post Office Protocol 3):
995 (TCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
MySQL: 3306 (TCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Automated Banner-Grabbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
■ 4 Remote Hacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Remote Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Intrusion Tactics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 58
Remote Service Vulnerabilities . . . . . 62
Application Vulnerabilities . . . . .. . 103
Nessus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 104
Obtaining a Shell . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 105
Port Redirection . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 108
Cracking /etc/shadow . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . 110
■ 5 Privilege Escalation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Exploiting Local Trust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Group Memberships and Incorrect File Permissions 112
“.” in PATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 114
Software Vulnerabilities . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Kernel Flaws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Local Buffer Overflows . . . . . . . . . .  116
Improper Input Validation . . . . . . 116
Symbolic Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Core Dumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 117
Misconfigurations . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 118
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
■ 6 Hiding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . 119
Clean Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Shell History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Cleaning /var . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Backdoors . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 122
Setuid and Setgid Shells Owned by root . . 123
Changing a Local Account’s uid to 0 . . . . 123
.rhosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . 124
SSH’s authorized_keys . . . . . 125
Trojans . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 126
Rootkits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Part II
Host Hardening
■ 7 Default Settings and Services .  . . . . . . 131
Set Password Policies . . . . . . . . . . . .. 132
Remove or Disable Unnecessary Accounts .. 132
Remove “.” from the PATH Variable . . 132
Check the Contents of /etc/hosts.equiv . 133
Check for .rhosts Files . . . . . . . . . . . .  . 133
Disable Stack Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Use TCP Wrappers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  133
Harden inetd and xinetd Configurations .  134
Disable Unnecessary Services . . . . .  . 134
Disable inetd or xinetd If No Services
Are Enabled . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Ensure Logging Is Turned On . . 135
Harden Remote Services . . . . 135
WU-FTPD . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 135
SSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  136
Sendmail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  136
BIND (DNS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Apache (HTTP and HTTPS) . . 139
Samba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
NFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  141
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 141
■ 8 User and File-System Privileges . . . .. 143
File Permissions: A Quick Tutorial . . . 144
World-Readable Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
World-Writable Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Files Owned by bin and sys . . . . . . . . 146
The umask Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Important Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
Files in /dev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . 149
Disk Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 149
setuid and setgid Files . . . . . . . . . . . . .  150
Implement the wheel Group . . . . . . . . 150
Sudo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   151
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
■ 9 Logging and Patching . . . . .. 153
Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . .  . 154
Log Rotation . . . . . . . . . . .156
Free Space in /var . . . . ..... 157
Patching . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 157
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Part III
Special Topics
■ 10 Nessus Attack Scripting Language (NASL) . . . 161
Running NASL Scripts from the Command Line . . . 162
Writing Nessus Plug-ins Using NASL . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Example Vulnerability . . . . . . . . . .. . . 162
The Plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Running the Plug-in . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . 166
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 167
■ 11 Wireless Hacking . . . . . . . 169
Introduction to WEP .. 170
Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Popular Tools . . . . . . . . 172
Airsnort . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Kismet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Fata-Jack . . . . . . . . . . 173
Securing Wireless Networks . . .174
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . 175
■ 12 Hacking with the Sharp Zaurus PDA . . . .177
Kismet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Wellenreiter II . . . . . . . . . . 179
Nmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Qpenmapfe . . . . . . . . . . . .  179
Bing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
OpenSSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  180
Hping2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  181
VNC Server . . . . . . . . . . .. 182
Keypebble VNC Viewer  183
Smbmount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Tcpdump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Wget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
ZEthereal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  184
zNessus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 184
MTR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Dig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  185
Perl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Online Resources for the Zaurus . . . . 186
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
■ Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

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This book will teach you exactly how hackers think so that you can protect your Unix and Linux systems from them. There is simply no other way to learn how to prevent your systems from being compromised.
In order to stop the attacks of the most sophisticated hackers, you need to understand their thought
processes, techniques, and tactics.
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HackNotes: Linux and Unix Security: Portable Reference, McGraw Hill

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Product details
 Price
 File Size
 3,493 KB
 Pages
 256 p
 File Type
 PDF format
 ISBN
 0-07-222786-9
 Copyright
 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies 
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